Colorectal Cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Colorectal Cancer Deck (40):
1

What is the most common type of benign colorectal tumours

Adenomas

2

What is the most common type of malignant colorectal tumours

Adenocarcinomas

3

What do normal oncogenes do?

Promote cell growth and division

4

What do abnormal oncogenes do?

Cause excess cell growth and division (gain of function)

5

What do normal tumour suppressor genes do?

Suppress cell growth and division

6

What do mutated tumour suppressor genes do?

Allow cell growth and division (loss of function)

7

What are 3 macrocopic appearances of colorectal cancer

Polypoidal
Ulcerative
Annular (ring shaped)

8

Where is the most common site of cancer in the large bowel?

Rectum or sigmoid colon

9

Where is the least common site of cancer in the large bowel?

Descending colon

10

What are two different appearances of adenomas

Tubular and villous

11

What are the three different appearances of adenocarcinomas

Well differentiated
Moderately differentiated and
Poorly differentiated

12

What appearance of an adenoma is more likely to develop into an adenocarcinoma?

Villous

13

Describe the appearance of a well differentiated adneocarcinoma

Still looks like colonocytes

14

What are the two different methods of pathological staging

Dukes and TNM

15

Describe Duke's stage C

A growth which has invaded throught hte muscle wall nad has metastasised to the lymph nodes

16

Where is colorectal cancer most likely to metastasise to?

Liver or lungs

17

What is a typical symptom of ascites

An everted umbilicus

18

What are the main two causes of colorectal cancer

Environemnt
Genetic factors

19

What are 3 protective lifestyle factors for colorectal cancer?

Vegetables
Gibre
Exercise

20

What are 4 causative lifestyle factors for colorectal cancer

Red and processed meat
Smoking
Alcohol
Obesity

21

What is the only treatment for FAP polyps?

Removing the colon

22

What are 3 predisposing conditions for Colorectal cancer

Adenomatous polyps
Ulcerative colitis
Crohn's disease

23

What are the symptoms for ascending colon cancer and why

Anaemia - early blood loss
Often asymptomatic

24

What are the symptoms for descending colon cancer

Pain
change in bowel habit
rectal bleeding

25

What are symtpoms for colorectal cancer

Significant rectal bleeding
Tenesmus

26

What are 4 ways of diagnosing primary disease

Barium enema
CT colography
Sigmoidoscopy
Colonoscopy

27

What is a method of removing colonic cancer via colonoscopy

Snare

28

What does FOBT stand for

Faecal Occult Blood Testin

29

When is FOBT used?

Screening device in the healthy population
It detects around 70% of cancers

30

What are the emergency presentations of colorectal cancer?

Distension
Constipation
Pain
Vomiting
Bleeding

31

What can be the diagnosis of an emergency presentaiotn

Obstruction
Bleeding
Perforation

32

What are 3 ways in which we can treat an obstruction

Colostomy
Resection and colostomy
Stenting

33

What are the prognosis rates for differentiated cells

Good for well differentiated
Moderate for moderately differentiated
Poor for poorly differentiated

34

What are the treatments for colorectal cancer

Surgery
Radiotherapy
Chemotherapy

35

When would radiotherapy be used

After Surgery (not alone)

36

What are the 3 different surgical prcedures for rectal cancer?

Abdominal-perineal excision
Anterior resection
Local excision

37

What is the difference between abdominal-perineal excision and anterior resection

More of the colon is removed in abdominal-perineal excision. The sphincter is saved in anterior resection

38

How can we prevent colorectal cancer

Diet and lifestyle

39

How can we improve early detection of colorectal cancer

Heightened awareness
Screening

40

What other ways can we improve the survival rates of colorectal cancer

High quality surgery
Appropriate use of RT and Chemo
New agents for advanced disease

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