Flashcards in Colorectal Cancer Deck (40):
What is the most common type of benign colorectal tumours
What is the most common type of malignant colorectal tumours
What do normal oncogenes do?
Promote cell growth and division
What do abnormal oncogenes do?
Cause excess cell growth and division (gain of function)
What do normal tumour suppressor genes do?
Suppress cell growth and division
What do mutated tumour suppressor genes do?
Allow cell growth and division (loss of function)
What are 3 macrocopic appearances of colorectal cancer
Annular (ring shaped)
Where is the most common site of cancer in the large bowel?
Rectum or sigmoid colon
Where is the least common site of cancer in the large bowel?
What are two different appearances of adenomas
Tubular and villous
What are the three different appearances of adenocarcinomas
Moderately differentiated and
What appearance of an adenoma is more likely to develop into an adenocarcinoma?
Describe the appearance of a well differentiated adneocarcinoma
Still looks like colonocytes
What are the two different methods of pathological staging
Dukes and TNM
Describe Duke's stage C
A growth which has invaded throught hte muscle wall nad has metastasised to the lymph nodes
Where is colorectal cancer most likely to metastasise to?
Liver or lungs
What is a typical symptom of ascites
An everted umbilicus
What are the main two causes of colorectal cancer
What are 3 protective lifestyle factors for colorectal cancer?
What are 4 causative lifestyle factors for colorectal cancer
Red and processed meat
What is the only treatment for FAP polyps?
Removing the colon
What are 3 predisposing conditions for Colorectal cancer
What are the symptoms for ascending colon cancer and why
Anaemia - early blood loss
What are the symptoms for descending colon cancer
change in bowel habit
What are symtpoms for colorectal cancer
Significant rectal bleeding
What are 4 ways of diagnosing primary disease
What is a method of removing colonic cancer via colonoscopy
What does FOBT stand for
Faecal Occult Blood Testin
When is FOBT used?
Screening device in the healthy population
It detects around 70% of cancers
What are the emergency presentations of colorectal cancer?
What can be the diagnosis of an emergency presentaiotn
What are 3 ways in which we can treat an obstruction
Resection and colostomy
What are the prognosis rates for differentiated cells
Good for well differentiated
Moderate for moderately differentiated
Poor for poorly differentiated
What are the treatments for colorectal cancer
When would radiotherapy be used
After Surgery (not alone)
What are the 3 different surgical prcedures for rectal cancer?
What is the difference between abdominal-perineal excision and anterior resection
More of the colon is removed in abdominal-perineal excision. The sphincter is saved in anterior resection
How can we prevent colorectal cancer
Diet and lifestyle
How can we improve early detection of colorectal cancer