Physiology and Pharmaxology of the small and large intestine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology and Pharmaxology of the small and large intestine Deck (66)
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1

Describe the length of the different parts of the small intestine

Duodenum - 25cm
Jejunum - 2.5m
Ileum - 3m

2

What happens in the small intestine

Major site for digestion and absoprtion
Receives chyme from the stomach, pancreatic juice from pancreas and bile form the gall bladder

3

How does the small intestine move remaining residues to the large intestine

Through the ileocaecal valve

4

In which part of the small intestine does most of the absorption and digestion occur?

Duodenum

5

How do pancreatic secretions and bile secretions enter the small intestine?

Through the sphincter of Oddi

6

What moves into the large intestine?

Unabsorbed electrolytes, water and indigestible residue (cellulose)

7

What is the sphincter between the small intestine and the large intestine

Ileocaecal valve

8

What controls the opening of the ileocaecal valve

The hormone Gastrin

9

In what 3 ways is the surface area of the small intestine increased?

Circular folds of Kerckring
Villi
Microvilli

10

What is the name of the absorptive cells?

Enterocytes

11

What 7 peptide hormones are secreted from endocrine cells within the mucosa

Gastrin
Cholexystokinin (CKK)
Secretin
Motilin
Glucaogon-like insulinotropic peptide (GIP)
Glucagon like peptide 1
Ghrelin

12

Where is gastrin secreted from

From G cells of gastric antrum and duodenum

13

Where is CCK secreted from?

From I cells of duodenum and jejunum

14

Where is secretin secreted from?

S cells of duodenum

15

WHere is motilin secreted?

From M cells of duodenum and jejunum
It has a special purpose in migrating the motor complex

16

Where is GIP secreted

an incretin from K cells of duodenum and jejunum
It causes an increase in gastric motility and serves as an incretin (feedforward signal)

17

Where is GLP-1 secreted

an incretin from L cells of the gut

18

Where is Ghrelin secreted

from Gr cells of the gastric antrum, small intestine and elsewhere (pancreas)

19

Where do all peptide hormones act on

G protein couple receptors

20

What is the role of Ghrelin

To release a hunger signal as a feedforward mechanism to prepare the body for food

21

What is the name given to the jucie of the small intestine

Succus entericus

22

What will cause the release off the intestinal juice

Any stimulatory act on the GI tract

23

What are some of the control mechanisms related to the secretions of the small intestine

Distension / irritation if acid is present
Parasympathetic activity - change in ACh

24

Secretions of the small intestine include:

Mucus - for protection/ lubrication
Aqueous salt - for enzymatic digestion
No digestive enzymes

25

What does excessive activity cause?

Secretory diarrhoea (cholera)

26

What is the function of the ATPase in the basolateral membrane

To maintain a low intracellular concentration of sodium

27

Cysitic fibrosis patients may suffer from what in GI

a decrease in secretion of succus entericus

28

Segmentation in the duodenum is primarily due to what?

distension due to Chyme entering

29

What is triggered by gastrin from the stomach
What is the alternative name for this?

Segmentation in the empty ileum
Gastroileal reflex

30

How many segmentation contraction are there in the duodenum?
In the ileium

Duodenum: 12/min
Ileum: 9/min

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