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Flashcards in Gastroenteritis Deck (61)
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1

What is gastroenteritis?

Inflammation of the stomach or intestines

2

What does gastroenteritis do?

inhibits nutrient absorption and excessive H2O and electrolyte loss

3

What are the 4 causes of gastroenteritis

Bacterial
Viral
Parasitic
Poisoning by microbial toxins

4

What makes you feel worse - bacterial or viral?

Bacterial

5

What is the most common cause of gastroenteritis

Infection mostly caused by a virus, bacteria or parasite

6

Why is there a lower incidence of Gastroenteritis in Dundee than there is in London

The number of parasites increases with the population of a city

7

What are the main common presentations of gastroenteritis

Fever
Abdo pain
Diarrhoea
Sometime blood PR

8

Why is there only sometimes blood PR

Certain pathogens cause blood- some are more likely than others

9

What is an example of a pathogen likely to cause blood

Campylobacter

10

When is the onset for toxin mediated food poisoning

1-6 hours after exposure

11

Why is foodborne illness a rapidly emerging crisis in industrialised countries

Poor sanitation and hygiene
Change in eating habits
Importation of food
Increase in day care centre attendance
Increase in elderly care
institutes
Increased travel
Pets carry many pathogens

12

What do poultry and eggs carry? How could we get this?

Campylobacter - if we do not cook the meat well enough

13

What are some non-infectious diarrhoea examples

GI bleed
Ischaemic gut
Diverticulitis
Endocirne disorders
Numerous drugs
Fish toxins
Withdrawl

14

How do we approach any clinical infection syndrome

Find what the key clinical symptoms and signs are that suggest infection
Differential diagnosis
Severity of infection
Site and microbiological diagnosis and investigations
Antibiotic and supportive management
Infection control
Public health

15

How does the norovirus spread

As a spray in vomit
Faecal/ oral

16

How long does it take for the norovirus to resolve

24-48 hours

17

What are the common symptoms of norovirus

Abrupt nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, cramps, myalgias

18

Who is most likely to get the norovirus

Older children and adults - not children

19

What are the 3 common presentations of food poisoning

Acute enteritis: fever, D&V, abdo pain
Acute colitis: fever, pain, bloody diarrhoea
Enteric fever like illness: fever, rigors, pain, but little diarrhoea by the time the present

20

What does blood diarrhoea usually indicate

Infection
IBD
Malignancy
Iscahemia

21

What is a complication of campylobacter

Guillain Barre

22

How long does Campylobacter affect us for

5-14 days

23

What do indentations on an AXR indicate

Inflammation

24

What are the common symptoms of enteric fever like illness
Give an example of enteric fever

Fever
Systemically unwell
Abdo pain
Constipation but possibly short history if diarrhoea

Typhoid is an example

25

What is typhoid?

A type of salmonella

26

In what countries is typhoid present?

India
SE Asia
Far East,
Middle East
Africa
Central America
South America

27

How is typhoid carried?

In food and water

28

What are the symptoms of typhoidW

Usually asymptomatic,
mild,
bacteriaemia,
enterocolitis

29

Define enterocolitis

inflammation of the small intestine and the colon

30

How can we diagnose typhoid

Blood, Stool and urine cultures

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