Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (85)
What are the hollow organs separated by?
What do sphincters do?
Control the movement of food
What occurs in the mouth and oropharynx?
Chopping of food, lubrication, beginning of carbohydrate and fat digestion and propel food to oesophagus
What is the function of the oesophagus?
To deliver food to the stomach
What the the main function of the stomach
Temporary storage of food
What else does the stomach do?
Continues digestion of carbs and fat and initiates the digestion of proteins
What is the main function of the small intestine?
Principal site of digestion and absorption of nutrients
What 3 structures does the small intestine consist of?
Duodenum, jejunum and ileum
What is the main function of the large intestine?
The reabsorption of fluids and electrolytes back into the body. It also stores fecal matter before regulated expulsion
What 7 structures is the large intestine made up of
Cecum, Ascending colon, Transverse colon, Descending Colon, Sigmoid Colon, Rectum, Anus
How many accessory structures are there?
Name the accessory structures
Salivary glands, liver and gall bladder and the pancreas
What is the function of the salivary glands
What is the function of the liver and gall bladder?
Storage and secretion of bile which aids in fat digestion
Where is the location of the pancreas?
Inferior to the stomach
Gastrointestinal motility is due to what?
The activity of smooth muscle
What happens to the lumen when circular muscle contracts?
Becomes long and narrow
What happens to the intestine when the longitudinal muscle contracts?
It becomes short and fat
What happens when the muscularis mucosae contract
There is a change in absorptive area and the secretory area of mucosa
What is motility?
A mechanical activity mostly involving smooth muscle
Name the 3 movements of motility
Propulsive, Mixing and Tonic
Give an example of propulsive
An example of mixing
elecrtolytes and digestive enzymes
Give an example of tonic movement
Where can secretion occur?
In the GI tract itself
The biochemical breakdown of chemically complex foodstuff into smaller, absorbable units
What are carbohydrates broken down to? and name an enzyme for this process
Monosaccharides and amylases
What are proteins broken down to? Name an enzyme for this process
AMino acids, dipeptides and tripeptides. Proteases or dipeptidases
What are fats mostly broken down to? What is the enzyme mediating this?
Monoglycerides and free fatty acids. Lipases