Oral and Oesophageal Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Oral and Oesophageal Pathology Deck (23):
1

What are the main two inflammatory disorders of the oesophagus?

Acute Oesophagitis (rare) and Chronic oesophagitis (common)

2

What can cause acute oesophagitis?

Corrosive following chemical ingestion
Infective in immunocompromised patients e.g. candidiasis, herpes, CMV

3

What can cause chronic oesophagitis?

Reflux disease (reflux oesophagitis)
Rare causes include Crohn's disease

4

What causes reflux in pregnant women

Increased abdominal pressure

5

Define reflux oesophagitis

Inflammation of the oesophagus due to refluxed low pH gastric contents

6

Microscopically, what can be seen in the oesophagus of reflux oesophagitis?

Basal zone epithelial expansion
Intraepithelial neutrophils, lymphocytes and oesinophils

7

List some complications of reflux

Ulceration (bleeding)
Stricture
Barrett's oesophagus

8

What is Barrett's oesophagus

Replacement of stratified squamous epithelium by columnar epithelium

9

Describe the epidemiology of allergic oesophagitis

Eosinphillic oesophagitis
Personal or family history of allergy
Asthma
Young
Males > Females

10

What is the treatment for allergic oesophagitis

Steroids / chromoglycate / montelukast

11

What are the two different types of oesophageal tumours

Benign and Malignant

12

What is the most common type of benign tumour

Squamous papilloma

13

What are the 2 main types of malignant tumours and which one is most common?

Squamous cell carinoma
Adenocarcinoma (more common)

14

Describe the epidemiology of squamous cell carincoma

Commoner in males
Declining
Probably something to do with diet and culture

15

Describe the aetiology of squamous cell carcinoma

Vit. A, zinc deficiency
Tannic acid/ strong tea
Smoking, alcohol
HPV
Oesophagitis
Genetic

16

Describe the aetiology of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus

Commoner in caucasians (white person with European origin)
Increasing in Europe and USA
Commoner in males and obesity
Commonest in the lower 1/3rd of the oesophagus

17

What is the pathway to Barrett's oesophagus

Inflammation, metaplasia, dysplasia, adenocarcinoma

18

Name the 3 mechanisms of metastases

Direct invasion
Lymphatic permeation
Vascular invasion

19

How would patients present with oesophageal carcinoma

Dysphagia
Anaemia
Weight loss
Loss of energy

20

What are the symptoms of oral squamous cell carcinoma

White, red, speckled, ulcer, lump

21

Where are the high risk sites

Floor of the mouth
Lateral border of tongue
Ventral tongue
Soft palate
Retromolar pad / tonsillar pillars

22

What is the aetiology of oral cancer

Tobacco
Alcohol
Betel quid
?Chronic infections
Nutritional deficiencies
? Genetics
History of primary oral squamous cell carcinoma have increased risk for 2nd primary

23

What is the reason for no improved survival in the last few decades

Late detection

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