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Flashcards in Pathology of the Liver Deck (84)
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1

What ribs cover the liver

7-11

2

What is the normal appearance of the liver?

Red brown colour with a smooth outline and contour

3

What 3 terms are used to describe the patterns of liver injury

1) Periportal Zone
2) Mid Acinar
3) Pericentral

4

What is the zone that is closest to the vascular supply

Zone 1

5

Cells in which zone are most vulnerable to injury?
Why is this the case?

Zone 3
They are furthest from the vascular supply - it takes longer for oxygen to reach them

6

What 4 aspects can cause insult to hepatocytes

Viral
Drug
Toxin
Antibody

7

How can we measure the degree of injury to the liver?

Insult
Grading the degree of inflammation
Staging the degree of fibrosis
Cirrhosis

8

What is cirrhosis

A chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of tissue. It is typically a result of alcoholism or hepatitis.

9

What are 4 causes of the acute onset of jaundice

Viruses
Alcohol
Drugs (paracetamol
Bile duct obstruction

10

What is the underlying cause of acute onset of jaundice

Hepatic necrosis

11

What is necrosis?

The death of most or all of the cells in an organ or tissue due to disease, injury, or failure of the blood supply.

12

What is the chemical name for Paracetamol

Acetoaminophen

13

Describe the structure of the liver which has been damaged by aracetamol

not a normal structure
Necrotic hepatocytes are more rounded and not polyhedral
Majority of cells have lost their nuclei

14

What 3 things can occur as a consequence of acute liver failure?

Complete recovery
Chronic liver disease
Death from liver failure

15

What is jaundice

Yellowing of the skin due to excess bilirubin

16

What are the 3 classifications of jaundice

Pre- hepatic
Hepatic and
Post-hepatic

17

What are the 2 types of jaundice

Conjugated or Unconjugated

18

What is the cause of pre-hepatic jaundice

Too much haem to break down

19

Describe pre-hepatic jaundice

Haemolysis of all causes
Haemolytic anaemias
Unconjugated bilirubin (uncombined)

20

What is hepatic jaundice

When the liver cells are injured or dead and so we have reduced hepatic function

21

Describe hepatic jaundice

Acute liver failure (virus, drugs, alcohol)
Alcoholic hepatitis
Cirrhosis (decompensated)
Bile duct loss (atresia, PBC,PSC)
Pregnancy

22

What is post hepatic jaundice

Bile cannot escape into the bowel

23

Describe post-hepatic jaunice

Congenital biliary atresia
Gallstones block CB Duct
Structures of CB duct
Tumours (head of the pancreas)

24

What does cirrhosis of the liver signify

The endpoint of liver disease

25

Define cirrhosis of the liver

Bands of fibrosis separating regenerative nodules of hepatocytes

26

What does cirrhosis result in

Loss of hepatic function

27

What is the main cause of cirrhosis of the liver

Alcohol

28

Describe the histological appearance of cirrhosis in the liver

Islands of hepatocytes have been cut off from eachother by bands of fibrous tissue has been deposited

29

What is the main complication of Cirrhosis

Portal hypertension

30

What are 2 other complications of cirrhosis

Ascites
Liver failure

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