Flashcards in Pathology of the Liver Deck (84)
What ribs cover the liver
What is the normal appearance of the liver?
Red brown colour with a smooth outline and contour
What 3 terms are used to describe the patterns of liver injury
1) Periportal Zone
2) Mid Acinar
What is the zone that is closest to the vascular supply
Cells in which zone are most vulnerable to injury?
Why is this the case?
They are furthest from the vascular supply - it takes longer for oxygen to reach them
What 4 aspects can cause insult to hepatocytes
How can we measure the degree of injury to the liver?
Grading the degree of inflammation
Staging the degree of fibrosis
What is cirrhosis
A chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of tissue. It is typically a result of alcoholism or hepatitis.
What are 4 causes of the acute onset of jaundice
Bile duct obstruction
What is the underlying cause of acute onset of jaundice
What is necrosis?
The death of most or all of the cells in an organ or tissue due to disease, injury, or failure of the blood supply.
What is the chemical name for Paracetamol
Describe the structure of the liver which has been damaged by aracetamol
not a normal structure
Necrotic hepatocytes are more rounded and not polyhedral
Majority of cells have lost their nuclei
What 3 things can occur as a consequence of acute liver failure?
Chronic liver disease
Death from liver failure
What is jaundice
Yellowing of the skin due to excess bilirubin
What are the 3 classifications of jaundice
What are the 2 types of jaundice
Conjugated or Unconjugated
What is the cause of pre-hepatic jaundice
Too much haem to break down
Describe pre-hepatic jaundice
Haemolysis of all causes
Unconjugated bilirubin (uncombined)
What is hepatic jaundice
When the liver cells are injured or dead and so we have reduced hepatic function
Describe hepatic jaundice
Acute liver failure (virus, drugs, alcohol)
Bile duct loss (atresia, PBC,PSC)
What is post hepatic jaundice
Bile cannot escape into the bowel
Describe post-hepatic jaunice
Congenital biliary atresia
Gallstones block CB Duct
Structures of CB duct
Tumours (head of the pancreas)
What does cirrhosis of the liver signify
The endpoint of liver disease
Define cirrhosis of the liver
Bands of fibrosis separating regenerative nodules of hepatocytes
What does cirrhosis result in
Loss of hepatic function
What is the main cause of cirrhosis of the liver
Describe the histological appearance of cirrhosis in the liver
Islands of hepatocytes have been cut off from eachother by bands of fibrous tissue has been deposited
What is the main complication of Cirrhosis