Flashcards in Public Health Deck (27)
What 3 elements do you need to get tooth decay?
Bacteria, sugar and tooth
What is dental caries
A dynamic process involving the exchange of calcium and phosphate ions between tooth structure and saliva (plaque fluid) in the presence of acids produced by the fermentation of carbs by oral micro-organisms
What are the 4 stages of tooth decay
Very early stage
What is DMF Index
The earliest way of summarising the dental health of populations.
It is the sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth or surfaces
What is decay?
Present experience of caries
What is missing
Past treatment of caries
What is filled?
Past treatment of caries
What are some of the problems with DMF?
Not all teeth are lost through caries
It is irreversible - and so not good for measuring beneficial interventions
What is DMFT
A count of all decayed or missing or filled teeth: a measure of obvious decay experience
It is a count of all primary teeth that are decaued, extracted due to carires or filled
Where is the highest caries distribution in the UK
Scotland is higher than England
What is NDIP
A national dental inspection programme
What can be described as a caries trend?
The distribution of caries in a population through time
Why has there been a world wide reduction in dental caries in children over the last 40 years
Brushing teeth with toothpaste containing fluoride
Is there any factor involved in the unequal distribution of dental caries?
Socio-economic status - associated with many illnesses, including dental caries
Describe the distibution of caries areound the mouth
Usually in the molars at the back of the mouth
What has happened to the total tooth loss in the last 40 years
A decrease in total tooth loss due to improvements in toothpaste
What happens to the total tooth loss with age
Increases from around 50 years +
What is the most common disease in the world?
How do we assess periodontal diseases
Basic Periodontal examination (BPE)
a probe that goes in between the teeth to determine the loss of bone structure
What are the treatments of gum disease?
Scaling and root planing
Surgery (extreme cases)
Long term maintenance
What has happened to the global numbers of gum disease recently
Incerased in some countries and decreased in others. Constant ongoing challenge to the NHS and other organisations
What is childsmile?
A national programme designed to improve the oral health of children in scotland and reduce inequalities both in dental health and access to dental services
Why are schemes like childsmile important?
We get a good idea of global trends through children more easily than we do through adults
What 3 elements are integrated in the programme
Nursery and school
Who delivers childsmile?
Dental Health support workers
Extended Duty Dental Nurses
Dental Practice staff
Health visitors and public health nurses
What causes a 40% reduction in dental caries in children?
2 applications of fluoride varnish