Biliary Tract and Pancreatic Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biliary Tract and Pancreatic Pathology Deck (21):
1

What is cholelithiasis?

Hard stone-like or gravel-like material formed within the biliary system most commonly the gallbladder

2

What is found in normal bile?

Micelles of cholesterol, phospholipid, bile salt and bilirubin

3

Where is bile stored?

in the gallbladder

4

How is bile released and where?

By CCK into the 2nd part of the duodenum through the common bile duct and the Ampulla of Vater

5

When do gallstones form?

When there is an imbalance between the ratio of cholesterol to bile salts disrupting micelle formation

6

Who are most likely to get gallstones

Female
Obese
Diabetic
Genetic

7

What are pigment stones made up of?

Excess bilirubin which cannot be solubilised in bile salts

8

What might 2 contributory factors of Gallstones

Gall bladder pH and mucosal glycoproteins

9

What makes up most gallstones

A mix of stones - cholesterol and pure pigment stones

10

What can gall stones cause

Obstructive jaundice
Empyema
Carcinoma
Acute pancreatitis
Chronic Pancreatitis

11

What is acute cholecystitis

Gallstones obstructing the outflow of bile that become infected

12

What might acute cholecystitis cause

Empyema, rupture, peritonitis

13

Describe the gallbladder wall in chronic cholecystitis

Thickened but not distended

14

Describe carcinoma of the gallbladder

Rare
Adenocarcinoma
Associated with gallstones
Local invasion of the liver
Poor prognosis

15

Describe carcinoma of the bile ducts

Rare
Associated with UC and PSC
Presents with obstructive jaundice
Adenocarcinoma

16

What is pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancrease which is either acute or chronic

17

What are 3 symptoms of acute pancreatitis

Severe abdominal pain
Shock
Elevated serum amylase

18

What is the acronym to remember the aetiology of acute pancreatitis

GET SMASHED

19

What is the pneumonic for remembering the complications of acute pancreatitis

Harry
Said
Remember
Rabits
Poor
And
Hop
High

20

What are 5 causes of chronic pancreatitis

Alcohol
Colelithiasis
Cystic fibrosis
Hyperparathryroidism
Familial

21

How and where does adenocarcinoma of the pancreas spread?

Direct spread to other organs (duodenum, stomach and spleen)
Spread to local lymph nodes
Haematogenous spread to liver

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