Why Might my Patient be Jaundiced? Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Why Might my Patient be Jaundiced? Deck (60):
1

What are 3 symptoms/ signs of jaundice?

Yellowing of the sclera/ skin
Caused by an increase in the blood levels of bilirubin

2

What is bilirubin

A normal by-product of the break down of red blood cells

3

Where does the breakdown of red blood cells mainly occur?

Spleen

4

What is bilirubin used to form and where?

Bile in the liver

5

What is the bilary tree and what does it do?

It transports bile
It is a set of tubes connecting the liver to the 2nd part of the duodenum

6

What is the role of the gallbladder?

Storage and concentration of bile

7

What is the main function of bile?

Normal absorption of fats from the small intestine

8

What does the pancreas do? and why is this necessary?

It excretes digestive enzymes into the 2nd part of the duodenum.
Necessary for digestion of food

9

Where is the portal triad found?

In the free edge of the lesser omentum

10

What does the portal triad consist of?

Hepatic artery, Heaptic portal vein and the common bile duct

11

What do the 3 tubes supply?

Blood supply to and drainage to the liver

12

What else is found in the portal triad?

Nerves and lymphatics

13

What is the first of the three midline branches of the abdominal aorta called?

The celiac trunk

14

The celiac trunk is retroperitoneal, define this

Situated or occuring behind the peritoneum

15

Where does the celiac trunk arise?

T12

16

What organs do the celiac trunk supply

All of the organs of the foregut

17

The celiac trunk trifurcates into what 3 branches?

Splenic artery, hepatic artery and the left gastric artery

18

Describe the course of the splenic artery

Very tortuous course

19

Where does the splenic artery run?

Along the superior border of the pancreas

20

What type of organ is the spleen?

Intraperitoneal organ within the hypochondrium

21

What is the main function of the spleen?

Break down red blood cells to produce bilirubin

22

What ribs protect the spleen?

Ribs 9-11

23

Where does the blood supply to the stomach come from?

RIght and left gastric arteries and the right and left gastro-omental arteries

24

Where do the gastric arteries run?

Along the lesser curvature

25

Where do the gastro-omental arteries run?

Along the greater curvature

26

What would happen if one of the blood supplies was cut off?

Blood would still be delivered from the other supply

27

Where does the blood supplying the liver come from?

Hepatic Artery

28

How much blood arrives from the hepatic artery?

20-25%

29

What other vessel delivers the rest of the blood to the liver?

Hepatic Portal Vein

30

What type of blood does the hepatic portal vein carry

Nutrient rich, oxygen poor blood

31

Where does the liver lie?

Upper right quadrant

32

What is the main function of the liver

Major metabolic organ which converts bilirubin to bile

33

What ribs protect the liver?

Ribs 7-11

34

What are the 4 anatomical segments of the liver?

Right and Left lobes, Caudate lobe and Quadrate lobe

35

How many functional segments does the liver have?

8

36

What does each segment possess?

Its own portal triad

37

How many veins drain blood from the liver?

3 Hepatic Veins

38

A rise in Central Venous Pressure would result in what?

Hepatomegaly as the liver would engorge in blood and the change in pressure is directly transmitted to the liver

39

What is the function of the sinusoids?

To clean the blood (nutrients are removed)

40

What is being produced in the hepatocytes?

Bile

41

Name the 2 clinically important areas of the peritoneal cavitiy related to the liver

Hepatorenal recess (Morrison's Pouch
Subphrenic recess

42

Where are the recesses of the liver located?

Within the greater sac

43

What could a collection of puss in the recess lead to?

Abscess formation

44

Where does the hepatic portal vein act?

Drains blood from the foregut, midgut and hindgut to the liver for first pass metabolism (cleaning)

45

What does the inferior mesenteric vein drain blod

Drains the blood from the hindgut to the splenic vein

46

What does the splenic vein do?

drains the blood From the foregut to the hepatic portal vein

47

What does the superior mesenteric vein do?

Drains the blood from the midgut to the hepatic portal vein

48

What does the IVC do?

Drains the cleaned blood from the hepatic veins into the right atrium

49

What ligaments attach the liver to the diaphragm?

Coronary ligaments

50

What ligaments attach the liver to the anterior abdominal wall?

Falciform ligament

51

What is the name of the remnant of the embryological umbilical vein?

Ligamentum teres / round ligament

52

What does the gallbladder do?

Stores and concentrates bile in between meals

53

What is the name of the narrowing of the gall bladder/?

Cystic duct

54

What is the narrowing a potential site for

Gallstone impaction

55

How does the blood reach the gallbladder?

Through tthe cystic artery which is a branch of the right hepatic artery

56

What can cause gallbladder pain

Inflammation of the gallbladder or cystic duct following irritations from or ompaction of a gallstone

57

What type of organ is the gallbladder?

A foregut organ

58

Visceral afferents enters the spinal cord between which 2 verticbrae?

T6 and T9

59

Where else can pain be found form the gall bladder?

Hypochondriium
Right shoulder (as a result of diaphrmatic irritation)

60

What is a cholescystectomy

Surgical removal of a gall bladder

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