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Flashcards in Pancreatic Lecture Deck (53)
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1

What are the 2 functions of the pancreas

Exocrine function
Endocrine function

2

What do the islet cells produce

Hormones

3

What do a islet cells produce

Glucagon

4

What do B islet cells produce

Insulin

5

Define acute pancreatitis

Acute inflammation process of the pancreas, with variable involvemnet of other regional tissues or remote organ systems

6

Define mild acute pancreatitis

It is associated with minimal organ dysfunction and an uneventful recovery
Predominant feature is interstitial oedema of the gland

7

Define severe acute pancreatitis

Associated with organ failure and or local complications such as necrosis, pseudocyst or abscess
Expression of the developent of pancreatic necrosis although patient with oedamatous pancreatitis may manfiest clnical features of a severe attack

8

What are 3 obstructive factors for pancreatitis

Biliary disease
Benign pancreatic duct stricture
Tumours of the ampulla or pancreas

9

What are 2 main toxic factors

Alcohol
Viral infection (mumps)

10

What are the 2 metabolic factors of pancreatitis

Hyperparathyroidism
Hyperlipiproteinaemia

11

What does GETSMASHED stand for

Gall stones
Ethanol
Trauma
Steroid
Mumps
Autoimmune
Spider Bites
Hyperparathyroidism
ERCP
Drugs

12

What are common findings on examination

Tenderness, peritonism, distention, bowel sounds, skin markings

13

What blood tests should be carried out for pancreatitis

FBC
Clotting
U&E
LFT
Amylase
CRP
Glucose
Ca

14

What imaging is carried out to diagnose pancreatitis

CXR/ AXR, AUS
CT pancreas
MRI
ERCP

15

Why does every patient with acute pancreatitis need an AUS

To rule out biliary pancreatitis

16

What is a complication of pancreatitis that might be seen in a CXR

Pleural Effusion

17

What is the most important scan of pancreatitis

CT Scan
Allows to assess severity and follow up

18

What are 5 complications of pancreatitis that can be seen on CT

Fluid collections
Pancreatic / peripancreatic necrosis
Ascites
Bleeding
Abscess formation

19

Is ERCP a diagnostic tool for pancreatitis

No - just for intervention

20

How many factors of the Glasgow prognostic score means acute severe pancreatitis

3

21

What happens to your risk of survival as the grade of pancreatitis increases from A to E

It decreases

22

What are 7 symptoms of Pancreatitis

Epigastric diffuse abdominal pain radiating to the back
Nausea and vomiting
Indigestion
Abdominal tenderness
Loss of appetite and weight loss
temperature
jaundice

23

What are 6 local complications

Fluid collection
Pseudocysts
Abscess
Necrosis and infection
Ascites
Pleural Effusion

24

What are 8 systemic complications

Pulmonary failure
Renal faulure
Shock
Sepsis
Metabolic acidosis
Hyperglycaemia
Hypocalcaemia
MODS

25

What are the 2 most important things to do for a patient with pancreatitis

Give fluids and oxygen

26

What will be seen on a CT straight away in necrotising pancreatitis. What do we do about this

Nothing
Prevent scanning too early

27

What is a pseudocyst

A complication of AP and CP - biliary obstruction, and compresses the gastric outlet

28

What do we do for a mature pseudocyts (9weeks+)

Drain it via surgery or ERCP

29

What is a pancreatitc abscess

Infected fluid in and around the pancreas

30

What is the modern approach of a pancreatic abscess

CT and US to find collection and then drain the abscess
IV antibiotics

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