Faecal Continence: the distal part of the GI tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Faecal Continence: the distal part of the GI tract Deck (38):
1

What can affect faecal continence

Medication
Natural degeneration of nerve innervation of muscle
consistency of stool (diarrhoea and constipation)

2

What is required to control the excretion of faeces

Holding area
Normal visceral afferent nerve fibres
Functioning muscle sphincters
Normal cerebral function

3

What do the rectum/ anal canal pass through

The pelvic floor

4

Where is the rectum located

The pelvic cavity

5

Where is the perineum

Inferior to the pelvic floor

6

What is the pelvic inlet

THe way into the pelvic cavity from the abdominal cavity

7

What are most of the pelvic floor muscles made up of

Levator ani

8

How many muscles make up the pelvic floor

3

9

What do the opening in the pelvic floor permit?

The distal parts of GI, Reproductive and renal tracts to pass through from the pelvic cavity into the perineum

10

What are the 4 parts of the distal part of the GI tract

Anus, anal canal, rectum and sigmoid colon

11

Where does the sigmoid colon become the rectum

anterior to S3 - the rectosigmoid junction

12

Where does the rectum become the anal canal

ANterior to the tip of the coccyx just prior to passing through the levator ani muscle

13

Where is the rectum?

In the pelvis

14

Where are the anal canal and the anus located

perineum

15

Where is the area of the rectum which dilates most?

Rectal ampulla

16

Where does the rectal ampulla lie?

Immediately superior to the levator ani muscle

17

What allows the rectal ampulla to dilate?

The relaxation of the wall

18

What is required to hold faeces in the ampulla until defacation

The functioning muscle and muscle sphincters

19

What type of muscle is the pelvic floor

Skeletal muscle

20

What type of response do skeletal muscles have

Voluntary

21

What is prolapse?

When things fall down through the muscle

22

What makes up the majority of the pelvic floor

The levator ani muscle and its fascial coverings

23

What does the levator ani muscle provide?

Continual support for the pelvic organs

24

What supplies the levator ani muscle

The nerve to levator ani (a branch of the sacral plexus)

25

Why must the levator ani muscle relax

To allow defecation and urination

26

What part of the levator ani muscle is particularly important for faecal continence

The puborectalis muscle

27

What happens when the puborectalis muscle contracts

A decrease in the anorectal angle, acting like a sphincter

28

What type of muscle is the puborectalis muscle

skeletal - voluntary control

29

What type of muscle is the interal anal sphincter

Smooth muscle

30

What does the internal anal spincter cover

The superior two thirds of anal canal

31

What stimulat the contraction of the internal anal sphincter

Sympathetic nerve

32

What inhibits the contraction of the internal anal sphincter

Parasympathetic nerves

33

In what state is the internal anal sphincter usually

Contracted

34

What type of muscle is the external anal sphincter

Skeletal muscle

35

What does the external anal sphincter cover

Inferior two thirds of the anal canal

36

What stimulates the contraction of the external anal sphincter?

Pudendal nerve

37

What happens to the external anal sphincter in reponse to rectal ampulla distension

It voluntarily contracts

38

What could a spinal cord injury result in

Faecal incontinence

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