Why Might my Patient be Jaundiced ? Part 2 Flashcards Preview

Gastro > Why Might my Patient be Jaundiced ? Part 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Why Might my Patient be Jaundiced ? Part 2 Deck (47):
1

Where is the main site of break down of red blood cells?

The spleen

2

What is a normal by-product of the breakdown of red blood cells

Bilirubin

3

What is bilirubin used to form ? Where does this occur?

Bile in the liver

4

Describe the biliary tree

A set of tubes connecting the liver tot the 2nd part of the duodenum

5

What 3 structures make up the interlobular portal triad?

branch of the Hepatic vein, branch of the hepatic artery and a biliary duct

6

What is the biliary tree made up of? What do they do?

A number of ducts which transport bile

7

What forms the common hepatic duct

Right and left hepatic ducts

8

What unite to form the bile duct

Common hepatic duct and the cystic duct

9

Where does the bile duct drain into?

The second part of the duodenum

10

Where is the location of the bile duct?

Descends posteriorly to the 1st part of the duodenum

11

Where does the bile duct travel into?

A groove on the posterior aspect of the pancreas where it then joins with the main pancreatic duct to form the ampulla

12

Where does the bile duct and the main pancreatic duct drain into?

The 2nd part of the duodenum through the major duodenal papilla

13

Name the 3 sphincters related to the bile duct

Bile duct sphincter, pancreatic duct sphincter and the sphincter of Oddi

14

What investigation is used to study the biliary tree and the pancreas?

ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography)

15

What could happen to the levels of bilirubin if there was an abstruction somewhere in the biliary tree?

Backflow of bile up to the liver.
Overspill of bile into the blood including bilirubin

16

What can cause an obstruction of the biliary tree?

Gallstones and carinoma at head of pancreas

17

Describe the panceras

Head with uncinate process
Neck
Body
Tail
Retroperitoneal organ which lies transversely across the posterior abdomen

18

What surrounds the head of the pancreas?

The duodenum

19

What is the endocrine function of the pancreas?

Islets of Lannerghans (insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream)

20

What is the exocrine function of the pancreas?

Acinar cell (pancreatic digestive enzymes into main pancreatic duct)

21

Where does the pancreas branch from?

Mainly from the splenic artery (pancreatic branches)

22

What is the most common cause of pain in the pancreas?

Pancreatitis

23

What is a cause of pancreatitis

Blockage of the ampulla by a gallstone causing bile to to be diverted into the pancreas leading to irritation and inflammation

24

Describe the type of organ the pancreas is

Foregut and midgut organ

25

Where can pancreatic pain present?

In the epigastric region / umbilical region
Radiate through to the back

26

What parts of the duodenum are foregut organs?

1st and 2nd parts of the duodenum

27

What are the rest of the small intestines?

Midgut organs

28

What are the 4 parts of the duodenum?

Superior
Descending
Horizontal
Ascending

29

What sphincter does the duodenum begin at?

Pyloric sphincter

30

What does the pyloric sphincter control?

The flow of chyme from the stomach to the duodenum

31

What is secreted by the duodenum

A number of peptide hormones into the blood (gastrin and CCK)

32

Where does pain from a duodenal ulcer tend to present?

Epigastric region

33

What does the close relationship between the pancreas and the duodenum cause?

Similarities in the blood supply

34

What is one of the branches of the gastroduodenal artery?

Superior pancreaticoduodenal

35

What is one of the brances of the superior mesenteric artery?

Inferior pancreaticodudoenal

36

What makes up most of the small intestines?

Jejunum and the ileum

37

Where does the jejunum begin?

At the duodenaljejunal flexure

38

Where does the ileum end?

At the ileocacal junction

39

Describe the folds in the jejunum?

Mucosa is highly folded
The folds are called plicae circularis
Slightly rough in texture

40

Is the mucosa of distal ileum smoother or rougher than the proximal end?

Smoother

41

What does bile help with?

The absorption of fats form the GI tract lumen into the intestinal cells

42

Where are fats absorbed from and where do they go?

From the intestinal cells and into specialised lymphatic vessels of the small intestine called lacteals

43

Where do fats eventually drain into the venous system at?

At the left venous angle

44

Where do lymph vessels lie in the abdomen?

Alongside arteries

45

What are the main 4 groups of lymph nodes drainign abdominal organs?

Celiac (foregut)
Superior mesenteric (midgut)
Inferior mesentric (hinf
Lumbar (kidneys, pelvis)

46

Where does the right lymphatic duct drain into?

DeeThe right venous angle (angle between the right subclavian and right internal jugular veins

47

Where does the thoracic duct drain lymph into?

Into the left venous angle (angle between the left subclavian and left interanal jugual veins

Decks in Gastro Class (67):