Flashcards in APUSH 4.1 Deck (56):
The US developed the worlds first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture while America sought to do what?
define the nations democratic ideals
reform its institutions to match them
What was accompanied by continued debates over federal power, their relationship between the federal government and the states, the authority of different braches of federal government and the rights and responsibilities of individual citizens?
The nation's transformation to more participatory democracy
In the development of the 1st and 2nd political party systems, what did federalists favor?
strong central government
supported by upperclass (merchants, bankers)
Loose interpretations of the Constiution
In the developent of the 1st and 2nd political party systems, what did D/R favor?
supported by lower and middle class (farmers)
Strict interpretation of the constitution
What two thing did D/R and Federalist party develop out of?
Hamilton's Financial Plan
Under the 2nd Political Party System, what were democrats led by?
Andrew Jackson (Common Man)
against BUS and other elite organizations
Under the 2nd Political Party System, what were the Whigs led by?
Anti Andrew Jackson
favored stronger federal government
The supreme court strengthened the power of the _ _ often at the expense of _ _.
federal government; state government
What trial established the principle of judicial review?
Marbury v. Madison
What trial upheld constitutionality of the 2nd BUS and gave more power to the federal than states?
McCulloch v. Maryland
What trial started taht Congress, NOT states, can control interstate commerce?
Gibson v. Ogden
With a growing economy, Americans debated the role of what?
government in the economy
What convention was where New England delegates were upset with embargos and War of 1812 (cut off trade to Britain - major trading partner) and proposed several ammendments including tougher restrictions for declaring war and passing ebargos?
What were internation improvements?
Debates over the role of federal government in intrastate improvements
(Mayesville road veto 1830
Jackson vetoed a bill for the roach which would only be in KY)
Regional, political, and economic loyalities overshadowed what?
What was the event where SC and other southern states opposed the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832; SC even nullified the tariffs?
Nullification Crisis 1833
Who threatened to secede if Jackson collected tariffs by force?
What was Webster's 2nd reply to Hayne?
Webster promoted nationalism over sectionalism
Why did many whites in the South associate their regional idenity through the pride of slavery?
Wealthy's saw themselves as aristocrats; owning slaves was a sign of wealth
Poor favored slavery so they were higher on the social order in society
What ways were people resistant to initiative for democracy?
Anti black sentiments in political and popular culture
Restrictive anti indian policies
What increased pro slavery arguments?
Nat Turner's Rebellion 1831
Who wrote "Slavery as a Postive Good"?
What was "Slavery as a Positive Good"?
argued that slaves worked under better condiions than industrial workers in the north
What would some advocates use to justify slavery?
Who also had proslavery arguements?
What is xeophobia?
fear of foreigners
What is nativism?
pro native born Americans and hostility to foreign born individuals
What were immigrants accused of?
stealing jobs by working for less money
Why were the Irish heavily discriminated?
belief that they stole elections
What was the Know Nothing Party (American Party)?
hoped to pass immigration restrictions laws; became a powerful political party in the 1850s
What was the Know Nothing Party simular to?
American Protetive Association of late 19th century
How were anti black sentiments in political and popular culture?
Minstrel shows (varity shows using black face)
Where were indians removed to in the Indian Removal Act 1830?
tribes in Georgia were moved west of Mississippi River
How did Jackson ignore the supreme courts ruling in Worchester v. Georgia?
Natives were forced to moved (Trail of tears)
While Americans celebrated their nation's progress toward a unified new national culture that blended Old World forms with New World ideas, variou groups of the nation's inhabitants developed what?
distintive cultures of their own
In the emergance of new national culture, what combination of two cultures were combined?
European and local cultures
What emerged in the new national culture?
Who made a significant contributions to the study of birds and prints of birds?
John James Audubon
What school focused on landscape paintings, believing nature was a great source of wisdom and inspiration?
Hudson River School
Cultures developed based on _ and _ of specific groups
In the early 19th century, why were natives relocated further and further back?
Indian Removal Act
In the 1840s, what was developed as a way for Indians?
Who began to attend higher education?
What are examples of higher eduction for women?
Cult of Demesticy
Seneca Falls Convention - 1848
Declaration of Sentiments
What religious followers came up?
Shakers and Mormons
Who practiced celibacy, believed in sexual equality?
Who, after years of turbulance, moved to Utah where they could freely practice religion?
How were the urban middle class different?
more americans owned shops and buisnesses
lived in large houses that they owned
bought new inventions (cast iron stove)
Enslaved Africans created communities nd sought to protect their what?
What type of families did slaves develop?
What would happen when African families were seperated?
others would look after family members
What was used to help pass time while working and was important part of slave church services?
People played an important role in the _ movements and sought to change their status?
Who appealed to colored citizens of the world (1829)?
Walker wanted Africans to openly resist what?