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Flashcards in APUSH 4.1 Deck (56):
1

The US developed the worlds first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture while America sought to do what?

define the nations democratic ideals
reform its institutions to match them

2

What was accompanied by continued debates over federal power, their relationship between the federal government and the states, the authority of different braches of federal government and the rights and responsibilities of individual citizens?

The nation's transformation to more participatory democracy

3

In the development of the 1st and 2nd political party systems, what did federalists favor?

strong central government
supported by upperclass (merchants, bankers)
Pro British
Loose interpretations of the Constiution

4

In the developent of the 1st and 2nd political party systems, what did D/R favor?

state rights
supported by lower and middle class (farmers)
Pro French
Strict interpretation of the constitution

5

What two thing did D/R and Federalist party develop out of?

French Rev
Hamilton's Financial Plan

6

Under the 2nd Political Party System, what were democrats led by?

Andrew Jackson (Common Man)
against BUS and other elite organizations

7

Under the 2nd Political Party System, what were the Whigs led by?

Anti Andrew Jackson
favored stronger federal government
internal improvemnts
BUS

8

The supreme court strengthened the power of the _ _ often at the expense of _ _.

federal government; state government

9

What trial established the principle of judicial review?

Marbury v. Madison

10

What trial upheld constitutionality of the 2nd BUS and gave more power to the federal than states?

McCulloch v. Maryland

11

What trial started taht Congress, NOT states, can control interstate commerce?

Gibson v. Ogden

12

With a growing economy, Americans debated the role of what?

government in the economy

13

What convention was where New England delegates were upset with embargos and War of 1812 (cut off trade to Britain - major trading partner) and proposed several ammendments including tougher restrictions for declaring war and passing ebargos?

Hartford Convention

14

What were internation improvements?

Debates over the role of federal government in intrastate improvements
(Mayesville road veto 1830
Jackson vetoed a bill for the roach which would only be in KY)

15

Regional, political, and economic loyalities overshadowed what?

national concerns

16

What was the event where SC and other southern states opposed the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832; SC even nullified the tariffs?

Nullification Crisis 1833

17

Who threatened to secede if Jackson collected tariffs by force?

South Carolina

18

What was Webster's 2nd reply to Hayne?

Webster promoted nationalism over sectionalism

19

Why did many whites in the South associate their regional idenity through the pride of slavery?

Wealthy's saw themselves as aristocrats; owning slaves was a sign of wealth
Poor favored slavery so they were higher on the social order in society

20

What ways were people resistant to initiative for democracy?

Proslavery arguments
Xenophobia
Anti black sentiments in political and popular culture
Restrictive anti indian policies

21

What increased pro slavery arguments?

Nat Turner's Rebellion 1831

22

Who wrote "Slavery as a Postive Good"?

John Calhoun

23

What was "Slavery as a Positive Good"?

argued that slaves worked under better condiions than industrial workers in the north

24

What would some advocates use to justify slavery?

Bible

25

Who also had proslavery arguements?

George Fitzhugh

26

What is xeophobia?

fear of foreigners

27

What is nativism?

pro native born Americans and hostility to foreign born individuals

28

What were immigrants accused of?

stealing jobs by working for less money

29

Why were the Irish heavily discriminated?

belief that they stole elections

30

What was the Know Nothing Party (American Party)?

hoped to pass immigration restrictions laws; became a powerful political party in the 1850s

31

What was the Know Nothing Party simular to?

American Protetive Association of late 19th century

32

How were anti black sentiments in political and popular culture?

Minstrel shows (varity shows using black face)

33

Where were indians removed to in the Indian Removal Act 1830?

tribes in Georgia were moved west of Mississippi River

34

How did Jackson ignore the supreme courts ruling in Worchester v. Georgia?

Natives were forced to moved (Trail of tears)

35

While Americans celebrated their nation's progress toward a unified new national culture that blended Old World forms with New World ideas, variou groups of the nation's inhabitants developed what?

distintive cultures of their own

36

In the emergance of new national culture, what combination of two cultures were combined?

European and local cultures

37

What emerged in the new national culture?

Art
literature
architectual designs

38

Who made a significant contributions to the study of birds and prints of birds?

John James Audubon

39

What school focused on landscape paintings, believing nature was a great source of wisdom and inspiration?

Hudson River School

40

Cultures developed based on _ and _ of specific groups

intersts
experiences

41

In the early 19th century, why were natives relocated further and further back?

Indian Removal Act

42

In the 1840s, what was developed as a way for Indians?

reservations

43

Who began to attend higher education?

Women

44

What are examples of higher eduction for women?

Cult of Demesticy
Seneca Falls Convention - 1848
Declaration of Sentiments

45

What religious followers came up?

Shakers and Mormons

46

Who practiced celibacy, believed in sexual equality?

Shakers

47

Who, after years of turbulance, moved to Utah where they could freely practice religion?

Mormons

48

How were the urban middle class different?

more americans owned shops and buisnesses
became professionals
lived in large houses that they owned
bought new inventions (cast iron stove)

49

Enslaved Africans created communities nd sought to protect their what?

family structures
dignity

50

What type of families did slaves develop?

surrogate

51

What would happen when African families were seperated?

others would look after family members

52

What was used to help pass time while working and was important part of slave church services?

slave music

53

People played an important role in the _ movements and sought to change their status?

abolitionist

54

Who appealed to colored citizens of the world (1829)?

David Walker

55

Walker wanted Africans to openly resist what?

their oppression

56

2 years after Walker's story, what happened?

Nat Turner's Rebellion 1831; strengthened the desire to silence abolitionism in the south