Flashcards in Industrial Revolution Deck (49):
What is the iron horse?
Where did Andrew Carneige start his life?
Ireland but moved to USA
How did Andrew Carneige get out from being poor?
He grew up in Pittsburg
He worked in the steel indutry and eventually produced 1/4 of the nations Bessemer steel and earned $25 million
What is vertical integration?
someone bought out and controlled all aspects of industry
What is horizontal integration?
someone allied with or bought out compeitors to monopolize a given market
How did the private RR companies, that were building the transcontiental, raise their money?
By raising their own capital funds with the assisstance of the federal government
What was often occumpanied by the rapid expansion of the RR system?
What did rr help?
created an integreated national market
stimulated growth in cities
encouraged european immigration
How did rr owners generally act when dealing with shippers, government, and the public?
not fair a
What did early, weak federal efforts at railroad regulation bring order and stability to?
What was Rockefeller oil companies techniqued that involved combining into one organizatin all the phases of manufacturing from raw material to the customer?
Rockefeller, Morgan, and others orgnized what in order to consolidate business and eliminate cutthroat competition?
Corporations effectively used what to prevent much effective government reguations of their activities?
sympathetic court rulings
What did the north think of the pro industry ideology of the New South?
South was hurt by the discrimination from the north in 1900
What two new inventions brought large numbers of women into the workplace?
typewriter and telephone
Did industrialization generally give the industrial wage erner greater or less status and control over his or her own life?
The impact of new machines and mass immigration did what?
held down wages
gave employers advantags in their dealings with labor
Who did the Knights of Labor organize?
What event severely hurt the Knights of Labor?
even though they had no connection with the bombing
What did the American Federation of Labor try to do?
organize unskilled workers, women, blacks
The federal government contributed to the building of hte national rail network by doing what?
providing free grants of federal land to the railroad companies
Who was the most effiennt and public minded of the early railroad building industrialists?
James J Hill
The RR most significantly stimulated American industrialization by what?
creating a single naitonal market for raw materials and consumer goods
The rr barons aroused considerable public opposiiton by practices such as what?
stock watering and bribery of public officials
The rr affected even the organiztion of time in the US by what?
introducing four standard time zones across the country
The first important federal law aimed at reguating american industry was what?
interstate commerce act
Financier J P Morgan exercsed his economic power most effectively by what?
consolidating rival industies through interlocking directorates
Andrew Carnegie industrial system of vertical integration involved what?
the combination of all phases of the steel industry from mining to manufacturing into a single organizaiton
THe large trusts like Standard Oil and Swift and Armour justified their economic dominantion of their industries by claiming what?
only large scale methods of production and distribution could provide superior products at low prices
The oil industry first thrived in the late 1880s by producing what?
Kerosene for oil lamps
Andrew Carnegies Gospel of Wealth proclaimed his belief of what?
Those who accired great wealth were morally resopnisble to use it for the public good
The attmept to create an industraliazed New South in the late 19 century generally failed because of what?
the south was discriminated against and held down as a supplier of raw materials to northern industry
For American workers, industrializaton generally meas what?
a long term rise of standard living but a loss of independence and control of work
In contrast to the Knight of Labor, the American Federation of Labor advocated what?
concentrating on improving waged and hours and avoiding general social reform
What are land grants?
federally owned acrege granted to the rr companies in order to encourage the building of rail lines
What is the union pacific RR?
the original transcontiental rr, commissioned by congress which built its line west from Omaha
What is the Central Pacific RR?
the california based rr company
headed by Leland Stanford
employed Chinese laboreres in building lines across the mountains
What was the Great Northern RR?
the northernmost ofthe transcontiental rr lines
organized by economically wise and public spiritied industrialist James Hill
What was stock watering?
Dishonest device by which rr promoters artificially inflated the prices of their stocks and bonds
What was hte Wabash Case?
Supreme court case of 1886 that prevented states from regulating rr or other forms of interstate commerce
What is the intersate commerce commission?
Federal regulatory agency often used by rail companies to stabilize the industry and prevent ruinous competiton
What is the telephone?
Late 19 century invention that revolutionized communicatin and created a large new industry that relied heavily on female workers
What was Standard Oil Company?
First of the great industrial trusts, organized through a principle of horizontal intergreation that ruthlessly incorportated or destroyed competitiors
What was US Steel?
First billion dollar American coperation
organized when J P MOrgan bouth out Carnegie
What is New South?
Term that identified southern promoters belief in a technologically advanced induastrail south
What was the colored national labor unions?
black labor organizatons that briefly flourished in the late 1860s
What was the Knights of Labor?
Secret, ritualistic labor organiztions thatenrolled many skilled and unskilled workers but collapsed after Haymarket Sqare Boming
What is Craft Union?
Skilled labor organizations such as those of carpenters an printers that were most successful in conducucting strikes and raising wages