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Flashcards in Industrial Revolution Deck (49):
1

What is the iron horse?

Railroad

2

Where did Andrew Carneige start his life?

Ireland but moved to USA

3

How did Andrew Carneige get out from being poor?

He grew up in Pittsburg
He worked in the steel indutry and eventually produced 1/4 of the nations Bessemer steel and earned $25 million

4

What is vertical integration?

someone bought out and controlled all aspects of industry

5

What is horizontal integration?

someone allied with or bought out compeitors to monopolize a given market

6

How did the private RR companies, that were building the transcontiental, raise their money?

By raising their own capital funds with the assisstance of the federal government

7

What was often occumpanied by the rapid expansion of the RR system?

rapid mergers
bankruptcies a
reorganization

8

What did rr help?

created an integreated national market
stimulated growth in cities
encouraged european immigration

9

How did rr owners generally act when dealing with shippers, government, and the public?

not fair a
not honest

10

What did early, weak federal efforts at railroad regulation bring order and stability to?

industrial competition

11

What was Rockefeller oil companies techniqued that involved combining into one organizatin all the phases of manufacturing from raw material to the customer?

vertical integration

12

Rockefeller, Morgan, and others orgnized what in order to consolidate business and eliminate cutthroat competition?

interlcking directorates

13

Corporations effectively used what to prevent much effective government reguations of their activities?

14 admendment
sympathetic court rulings

14

What did the north think of the pro industry ideology of the New South?

South was hurt by the discrimination from the north in 1900

15

What two new inventions brought large numbers of women into the workplace?

typewriter and telephone

16

Did industrialization generally give the industrial wage erner greater or less status and control over his or her own life?

less

17

The impact of new machines and mass immigration did what?

held down wages
gave employers advantags in their dealings with labor

18

Who did the Knights of Labor organize?

skilled/unskilled
blacks/whites
women/men

19

What event severely hurt the Knights of Labor?

Haymarket Square
even though they had no connection with the bombing

20

What did the American Federation of Labor try to do?

organize unskilled workers, women, blacks
they succeeded

21

The federal government contributed to the building of hte national rail network by doing what?

providing free grants of federal land to the railroad companies

22

Who was the most effiennt and public minded of the early railroad building industrialists?

James J Hill

23

The RR most significantly stimulated American industrialization by what?

creating a single naitonal market for raw materials and consumer goods

24

The rr barons aroused considerable public opposiiton by practices such as what?

stock watering and bribery of public officials

25

The rr affected even the organiztion of time in the US by what?

introducing four standard time zones across the country

26

The first important federal law aimed at reguating american industry was what?

interstate commerce act

27

Financier J P Morgan exercsed his economic power most effectively by what?

consolidating rival industies through interlocking directorates

28

Andrew Carnegie industrial system of vertical integration involved what?

the combination of all phases of the steel industry from mining to manufacturing into a single organizaiton

29

THe large trusts like Standard Oil and Swift and Armour justified their economic dominantion of their industries by claiming what?

only large scale methods of production and distribution could provide superior products at low prices

30

The oil industry first thrived in the late 1880s by producing what?

Kerosene for oil lamps

31

Andrew Carnegies Gospel of Wealth proclaimed his belief of what?

Those who accired great wealth were morally resopnisble to use it for the public good

32

The attmept to create an industraliazed New South in the late 19 century generally failed because of what?

the south was discriminated against and held down as a supplier of raw materials to northern industry

33

For American workers, industrializaton generally meas what?

a long term rise of standard living but a loss of independence and control of work

34

In contrast to the Knight of Labor, the American Federation of Labor advocated what?

concentrating on improving waged and hours and avoiding general social reform

35

What are land grants?

federally owned acrege granted to the rr companies in order to encourage the building of rail lines

36

What is the union pacific RR?

the original transcontiental rr, commissioned by congress which built its line west from Omaha

37

What is the Central Pacific RR?

the california based rr company
headed by Leland Stanford
employed Chinese laboreres in building lines across the mountains

38

What was the Great Northern RR?

the northernmost ofthe transcontiental rr lines
organized by economically wise and public spiritied industrialist James Hill

39

What was stock watering?

Dishonest device by which rr promoters artificially inflated the prices of their stocks and bonds

40

What was hte Wabash Case?

Supreme court case of 1886 that prevented states from regulating rr or other forms of interstate commerce

41

What is the intersate commerce commission?

Federal regulatory agency often used by rail companies to stabilize the industry and prevent ruinous competiton

42

What is the telephone?

Late 19 century invention that revolutionized communicatin and created a large new industry that relied heavily on female workers

43

What was Standard Oil Company?

First of the great industrial trusts, organized through a principle of horizontal intergreation that ruthlessly incorportated or destroyed competitiors

44

What was US Steel?

First billion dollar American coperation
organized when J P MOrgan bouth out Carnegie

45

What is New South?

Term that identified southern promoters belief in a technologically advanced induastrail south

46

What was the colored national labor unions?

black labor organizatons that briefly flourished in the late 1860s

47

What was the Knights of Labor?

Secret, ritualistic labor organiztions thatenrolled many skilled and unskilled workers but collapsed after Haymarket Sqare Boming

48

What is Craft Union?

Skilled labor organizations such as those of carpenters an printers that were most successful in conducucting strikes and raising wages

49

What is American Federation of Labor?

The conservative labor group that successfully organzied a minority of AMerican workers but left others out