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Flashcards in APUSH 2.3 Deck (43):
1

The increasing political, economic, and cultural exchanges within the Atlantic World had some profound impact on the development of what?

Colonial societies in North America

2

Atlantic World commercial, religious, philosophical, and political interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American native people stimulated what?

Economic growth
expanded social networks
reshaped labor systems

3

What was created by the 17th century Atlantic Trade?

labor market
exchange of goods

4

What began with Spanish and Portuguese traders in West Africa?

Growth of slavery in the Americas

5

What was the passage where shipments of Africans in close quartered ships were shipped and would last several weeks or months?

Middle Passage

6

What trade route shipped rum, sugar, molasses, and slaves?

Triangular trade route

7

How did merchants trade defy the Navigation Acts?

traded with Spanish, Dutch, and French

8

What promoted Anglicization in the British colonies?

using more English norms and customs

9

What was similar to English governments?

Representative assemblies

10

What increased contact with colonies and England?

Trade

11

What kind of ideas traveled from England and Europe to Americas?

Enlightenment

12

How did America later use similar contributions like the Enlightenment?

Franklin and Jefferson

13

What colonies had religious freedom?

Maryland Act of Toleration: reliogious tolerance to all Christians
Quakers

14

How did Evangelism spread?

The 1st great awakening saw George Whitefield travel from England travel to the colonies to spread religion

15

What emerged among British colonies?

Strict racial categories and stereotyping

16

Blacks and whites lived in _ living quarters and were _ throughout the day.

Separated
Segregated

17

Similar to natives, Africans were also seen as what?

Savages, and less than human to justify treatment

18

How was any resistance to slavery treated?

Harshly

19

What were the Spanish and French more accepting of?

racial gradation

20

What emerged in the Spanish empire?

Mestizos and mullatos

21

Britain's desire to maintain a viable North American empire in the face of growing internal challenges and external competition inspired efforts to do what?

Strengthen imperial control
Stimulating increasing resistance from colonists who had grown accustom to large measure of automony

22

Overtime, regional differences in colonies gave way to similarities in what?

Laws
Trail
Institution
Governance within the context of the British imperial system

23

What was the similarity in laws?

crimes were redefined (John Peter Zenger)

24

What was the similarity in trial?

People could criticize government officials if it was true

25

What was the similarity in institutions?

colleges were established in different colonies
helped promote religion and increase literacy

26

What was similar in governance within the context of British imperial system?

Prior to 1763, colonial governments acted independent of Parliment

27

Under _, the goal is for the mother country (England) to make as much money as possible.

Mercantilism

28

Was England's goal of creating a unified imperial structure and enforcing strict mercantilism policies always successful?

No, they were not always successful

29

What required colonies to export specific goods only to England or English colonies?

Navigation Acts

30

Navigation Acts led to widespread _ from colonial merchants.

smuggling

31

What combined Massachusetts with the rest of New England? (And eventually NJ and NY)

Domination of New England

32

_ was eliminated and a new _ was appointed.

Assemblies; govener

33

Who was the govener after the assemblies were eliminated?

Sir Edmund Andos (very unpopular)

34

The Dominion was met with resistance and ended with what?

Glorious Revolution in England

35

For most of the early 18th century, what did England follow a policy of?

Salutary Neglect

36

Were English colonies mostly left alone to govern themselves?

Yes

37

When would England's hands off approach come to an end?

1763 with the end of the 7 Years War

38

What were the reasons for resistance to British imperial control?

Salutary neglect
Enlightenment
The Great Awakening
Colonies saw themselves as English men even though English officials did not always

39

What led to colonial assemblies having significant power, often viewing themselves as Parliament?

Salutary Neglect

40

What led many to question the government and desire more rights, and new forms of government?

Enlightenment

41

What created more religious diversity and a questioning of authority?

The Great Awakening

42

What was the treaty of tordesillas?

1494; Portuguese and Spain would move the Papal line of Demarcation to the west slightly

43

What was the Papal Line of Demarcation?

1493; The Pope divided the world between Portugal and Spain by drawing a line down a map of the known world giving Spain everything West and everything east to Portugal