Flashcards in Industrial Revolution Test Deck (59):
What is the Union Pacific RR?
began to build westward from Nebraska to California
issues by Congress to try and help California bind to the republic
Central Pacific Railroad
Railroad starting in California that would extend east - backed by "The Big Four"
Part of the Big Four
ex-governor of California
Collis P. Huntington
Part of the Big Four
the four transcontinental railroads
Northern Pacific Railroad
Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe
financed the successful western railroads, invented the steel rail, standard track, and track gauge. overall, made railroad more efficient
Pullman Palace Cars
luxurious but dangerous passenger cars
"like home on the railroad"
a leading railroad developer that played the game of dazzling the public while making multi-million dollars at their expense
companies grossly over-inflated the worth of their stock and sold them at huge profits
a group of supposed competitors who agree to work together, usually to set prices
political group formed by farmers to combat such corruption
Supreme Court ruling which ruled that states could not regulate interstate commerce
Interstate Commerce Act
1887, banned rebates and pools
required railroads to publish their rates openly as to not cheat customers and forbade unfair discrimination
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
set up to enforce the Interstate Commerce Act
a shrewd corporate lawyer, noted that they could use the Interstate Commerce Act to act to capitalist advantage
Alexander Graham Bell
invented telephone in 1876, launched new age of communication
invented a lot of things, most remembered for electric light bulb in 1879
when someone allies with other competitors instead of controlling everything themselves
John D. Rockefeller
dominated oil industry - "rule or ruin"
when someone buys out and controls all aspects of an industry (ex. mined iron, transported it, refined it, turns it into steel, and sells it) - takes out middleman
placing someones own men on boards of directors of other rival competitors to gain influence and reduce competition
invention that made steel-making cheaper and more effective
an American who discovered the Bessemer process, but an Englishmen got credited
J. Pierpont Morgan
made a fortune in the banking industry in Wall Street - wanted to get into steel
Carnegie threatened to ruin him, so after some negotiation, Morgan bought Carnegie's business (it was Carnegie's plot from the beginning to sell)
Gospel of Wealth
theory that people in the world were destined to become rich and then help society with their money
Darwin's "survival-of-the-fittest" to business world
Reverend Russell Conwell
became rich from "Acres of Diamonds" - basic meaning poor people made themselves poor and rich people made themselves rich
power through wealth
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
1890, forbade combination in restraint of trade without any distinction between "good" and "bad" trusts
James Buchanan Duke
developed huge cigarette industry with new machines (took out hand-rolling) (called American Tobacco Company)
the new ideal of women - young, athletic, attractive, outdoorsy
didn't really work out, most started working in factories that paid them less of their male counterparts
hiring replacements when people went on strike
"ironclad oaths" or "yellow dog contracts"
workers were forced to sign these that would ban them from joining a union
National Labor Union
1866 founding, first labor union - widespread
worked for arbitration of industrial disputes and the eight-hour workday
Knights of Labor
like National Labor Union, but it included two groups that they did not: blacks and women
John P. Altgeld
German-born Democrat that was the governor of Illinois
released the sentenced men free from Haymarket Square Bombing (received both positive and negative reactions from people - civic virtue)
Haymarket Square Bombing
May 4, 1886
Dynamite bomb went off in Chicago, eight anarchists were rounded up and were sentenced to death even though no one could prove they had done it
Founded the American Federation of Labor (1886
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
an association of self-governing national unions, each with keeping its independence
was composed of skilled laborers, it was willing to let unskilled laborers end for themselves
What are scabs?
What did Industrialization impact?
Standard of Living: up
More immigrants found work
Ag went down in importance
Women find more work
What are lockouts?
employer refuses to let workers work
What is blacklisted?
list of denied workers
first major strike
caused by workers taking pay cuts
This was a rr manufacturing company ran by Andrew Pullmen
What percent of workers were in Unions?
What did government do after Pullmen's strike?
tried to stop Unions
What were the 2 main successes from the Labor Unions?
8 hour workday
RR company that took $23 mill from the US govt by using a lot of money for small jobs
In 1869, where was the transocontientlal rr completed?
near Ogden Utah
What did Vanderbuilt head?
Where did RRs help people settle that used to be harsh?
What was created due to RRs so that RR conductors would be less confused about time?
4 time zones
Monopoly (buy everything)
Irish immigrant that moved to Pittsburg and worked in the steel industry
By 1900, he made 1/4 Bessmer steel and made $25 mill
Gospel of Wealth
Sold his company to Morgan for $400 mill
How did the US become the #1 in the world's largest manufacturer?
Abundent liquid capital
Exploited natural resources
Massive immigration made labor cheap
Inventions like the mass production
What was Carnegie's method?
What was Rockefeller method?
How was oil used in the 1860s and 1870s?
keroscene was used to light lamps