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Flashcards in Industrial Revolution Test Deck (59):
1

What is the Union Pacific RR?


began to build westward from Nebraska to California

issues by Congress to try and help California bind to the republic

2

Central Pacific Railroad


Railroad starting in California that would extend east - backed by "The Big Four"

3

Leland Stanford

Part of the Big Four
ex-governor of California

4

Collis P. Huntington

Part of the Big Four
adept lobbyist

5


the four transcontinental railroads

Northern Pacific Railroad
Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe
Southern Pacific
Great Northern

6


Cornelius Vanderbilt

financed the successful western railroads, invented the steel rail, standard track, and track gauge. overall, made railroad more efficient

7

Pullman Palace Cars


luxurious but dangerous passenger cars
"like home on the railroad"

8

Jay Gould

a leading railroad developer that played the game of dazzling the public while making multi-million dollars at their expense

9

"stock watering"

companies grossly over-inflated the worth of their stock and sold them at huge profits

10

"pools"

a group of supposed competitors who agree to work together, usually to set prices

11

The Grange

political group formed by farmers to combat such corruption

12


Wabash Case

Supreme Court ruling which ruled that states could not regulate interstate commerce

13

Interstate Commerce Act

1887, banned rebates and pools
required railroads to publish their rates openly as to not cheat customers and forbade unfair discrimination

14

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

set up to enforce the Interstate Commerce Act

15

Richard Olney

a shrewd corporate lawyer, noted that they could use the Interstate Commerce Act to act to capitalist advantage

16

Alexander Graham Bell

invented telephone in 1876, launched new age of communication

17

Thomas Edison

invented a lot of things, most remembered for electric light bulb in 1879

18

"horizontal integration"

when someone allies with other competitors instead of controlling everything themselves

19


John D. Rockefeller

dominated oil industry - "rule or ruin"

20

"vertical integration"

when someone buys out and controls all aspects of an industry (ex. mined iron, transported it, refined it, turns it into steel, and sells it) - takes out middleman

21

"interlocking directorates"

placing someones own men on boards of directors of other rival competitors to gain influence and reduce competition

22

Bessemer process

invention that made steel-making cheaper and more effective

23

William Kelly

an American who discovered the Bessemer process, but an Englishmen got credited

24

J. Pierpont Morgan

made a fortune in the banking industry in Wall Street - wanted to get into steel

Carnegie threatened to ruin him, so after some negotiation, Morgan bought Carnegie's business (it was Carnegie's plot from the beginning to sell)

25

Gospel of Wealth

theory that people in the world were destined to become rich and then help society with their money

26

"Social Darwinism"

Darwin's "survival-of-the-fittest" to business world

27

Reverend Russell Conwell

became rich from "Acres of Diamonds" - basic meaning poor people made themselves poor and rich people made themselves rich

28

plutocracy

power through wealth

29

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

1890, forbade combination in restraint of trade without any distinction between "good" and "bad" trusts

30

James Buchanan Duke

developed huge cigarette industry with new machines (took out hand-rolling) (called American Tobacco Company)

31

Gibson Girl

the new ideal of women - young, athletic, attractive, outdoorsy

didn't really work out, most started working in factories that paid them less of their male counterparts

32

"scabs"

hiring replacements when people went on strike

33

"ironclad oaths" or "yellow dog contracts"

workers were forced to sign these that would ban them from joining a union

34

National Labor Union

1866 founding, first labor union - widespread

worked for arbitration of industrial disputes and the eight-hour workday

35

Knights of Labor

1869 founding

like National Labor Union, but it included two groups that they did not: blacks and women

36

John P. Altgeld

German-born Democrat that was the governor of Illinois

released the sentenced men free from Haymarket Square Bombing (received both positive and negative reactions from people - civic virtue)

37

Haymarket Square Bombing


May 4, 1886

Dynamite bomb went off in Chicago, eight anarchists were rounded up and were sentenced to death even though no one could prove they had done it
`

38


Samuel Gompers

Founded the American Federation of Labor (1886

39


American Federation of Labor (AFL)

an association of self-governing national unions, each with keeping its independence

was composed of skilled laborers, it was willing to let unskilled laborers end for themselves

Terrence Powderly

40

What are scabs?

replacements

41

What did Industrialization impact?

Standard of Living: up
More immigrants found work
Ag went down in importance
Women find more work

42

What are lockouts?

employer refuses to let workers work

43

What is blacklisted?

list of denied workers

44

Pullmen strike

first major strike
caused by workers taking pay cuts
This was a rr manufacturing company ran by Andrew Pullmen

45

What percent of workers were in Unions?

3%

46

What did government do after Pullmen's strike?

tried to stop Unions

47

What were the 2 main successes from the Labor Unions?

Laborday 1894
8 hour workday

48

Credit Mobilier

RR company that took $23 mill from the US govt by using a lot of money for small jobs

49

In 1869, where was the transocontientlal rr completed?

Promontory Point
near Ogden Utah

50

What did Vanderbuilt head?

NY Central

51

Where did RRs help people settle that used to be harsh?

Great Plains

52

What was created due to RRs so that RR conductors would be less confused about time?

4 time zones

53

Trusts

Monopoly (buy everything)

54

Andrew Carneige

Irish immigrant that moved to Pittsburg and worked in the steel industry
By 1900, he made 1/4 Bessmer steel and made $25 mill
Gospel of Wealth
Sold his company to Morgan for $400 mill

55

How did the US become the #1 in the world's largest manufacturer?

Abundent liquid capital
Exploited natural resources
Massive immigration made labor cheap
Inventions like the mass production

56

What was Carnegie's method?

vertical integration

57

What was Rockefeller method?

horizontal integration

58

How was oil used in the 1860s and 1870s?

keroscene was used to light lamps

59

Who was Henry Grady?

editor of Atlanta Constitution and used the south to industrialize