Flashcards in Progressive Era Deck (101):
When was the Gilded Age?
1870s and 1880s
What were the major points during the Gilded Age?
US as world's main industrial power
Industrialists and finacnciers formed trusts
Criticism of unfair practicces and poor worker freatment
Who founded Standard Oil cCOmpany and when?
Rockefeller in 1867
What did the Standard Oil Act do?
Controled 90% of US oil refining and alost hte entire petrolum industry
Other industries followed this example
Sherman Antitrust Act 1890 had what kind of impact for a decade after its passage?
What caused the Panic of 1893?
Overspeculatoin during 1880s
What happened in the Panic of 1893?
Banks, RRs, and other companies failed
Unemployment, homelessness, and financial ruin
Refrom minded Americans began to organize
Whats the overview of Progressivism?
Variety of organizaton and interests
not a cohesive movement
3 broad catagories: social,, economic, political reform
What were local changes?
What were state changes?
safety measures in factories
restricted child labor
EX: WI and La Follette
Women became more involved in what?
social and political causes
Mainly middle and upper class
Aimed causes at lower class to increase moral behavior
Ex: YWCA and National Consumer League
What are muckrakers?
Journalists who exposed corruption and social injustices
Termed by TR
Works were published in popular magazines
Ex: Riis, Steffens, Tarbell, Baker
Who was Jabob Riis?
Photographed ad wrote about the conditions in tenaments and factories and on the streets
How the other half lives (1890)
Set the stage for Progressive urban reformers
Why did Immigrants come to America?
job oppurtunities and relgigous freedom
Mainly southern and eastern europe and jewish
How were immigrants treated in AMerica?
ethnic enclaves in large cities
faced prejudice and discriminaiton
Who founded the Hull House in Chicago and when?
Jane Addams and Stair
What was the hull house?
a community center for the poor
offered classes, concerts, lectures, clubs
Hull House workers lived in hte community
What was seen as the root of urban problems?
Were most relief programs private or public?
Who replaced volunteers in charities and relief programs?
paid case workers
Tensions rose between charities and who?
When did chartices and settlement houses work toward a common goal?
What were the bad things about tenaments?
lack of basic comforts
When was the Tenament house Act?
What did Taylorism increase?
Who was the first managemtn consultant?
What did a manager consultant do?
help companies maximize worker efficiency
What resulted from manager consultants?
workers and managers complained of less autonomy
did not offer workerslog term economic success
What were the cons of being a factory worker?
growing enployment insecurities
fear of injury or death at work
assembly line workers get paid by the task
women and children paid less
very few blacks
workers began to organize
What were sweat shops?
factories with terrible working conditions, low wages, long hours
garment and cigar industires
worked by immigrants
mostly women and some children
How many under 16 year olds had jobs in 1900?
Who campained agaist child labor ad higher adult wages?
Who were advocates for antichild labor?
National Child Labor Committee
US Children's Bureau
When did the National Child labor committee begin?
Which states had CHild labor laws?
Who photographed childrens' labor?
When was the Fair Labor Standards Act passed?
Why did the triangle shirtwaist fire hapen?
highly flamible materials
When was the triangle shirtwaist fire?
March 25 1911
How many died from the triangle shirt waist fire?
mainly immingrant young women
What was the result of hte traingle shirtwasit fire?
led to public outcry
increased legislation for safety meaures
Who founded the National Consumers League?
Florence Kelley 1899
What was the National Consumers League?
Run primarily by women
Pushed for fair and humane manufactoring of consumer products
Advocated for state and natonal minimum wage and max work hour laws
WWhat program was the Nationa Cnsumer League beginning?
What court case was with the National Consumers League?
Muller v. Orgeon (1908)
Why did groups of workers organize?
to negotiate with employers
Industrial unins at the turn of the 20th century tended to be what?
more radical IWW
Why did labor unions emerge?
As a response to mid 1890s economic depression
When was the Pullmen Strike?
What caused the pullman strike?
pullman company cut wages but did not lower rents
Who joined the American RR union?
What happened during hte Pullmen strike?
Strike shut down the passanger RR systems
Federal intervension led to violence, 34 dead
Government broke the strike
Who was Samuel Gompers?
President of American Federation of Labor (AF of L)
Established collective bargaining procedures
Stressed workers benifits in exchange for union dues
How radical was teh AF of L?
less radical than other unions
What was the Good governemtn movement?
progressives aimed to increase transparity and honesty in city government
Reduce influence of immigrants and working class in the city
What were direct primaries?
aloows voters, not party leaders or boses, to directly choose canadates
La Follette of WI
WI adopted first direct primary law in 1903
Who was Lincoln Steppens?
Muckraker who exposed govt corruption
Articles in McClures
The Shame fo the Cities (1904)
Uncovered direct evidence of graft
Increased public outrage
What is an initiative?
citizens vote on a proposed state law
What is a referendum?
Citizens vote on an exsisting law
How did Progressives view state legislators?
beholder to wealthy business interests
Who became the first state to enact both initiative and referendum and when?
What was the 17th ammendment?
THe people vote for the Senetes
Who chose the senetes before f17th ammendment?
there was corruption, bribery, and deadlocks with that
Who wrote, THe Treason of the Senate?
What did women suffrage include?
toward more democratic govt
What was formed for women suffrage in 1890?
More women served as what kind of leaders?
When was the 19th ammendment passed and what was it?
What are the examples of women progressive leaders?
What was the Temprace Movemnet?
alcohol was felt to be undermining society's moral fabric
Wanted to ban alcohol
What groups formed for the Temprace Movement?
Anti Saloon League
What did hte Temprace Movement target?
What was Morality Policing?
Moral improvemnts for immigrants, working class, and the young
What did the Morality Policy target?
leisure activities like jazz ad ragtime
rules against immoral dancing
whites thought the music had too much black culture
What was the Eugenics Movement?
Believed that those with inferior genes hreated the nations future
sought to curb reproduction of inferior and support reproduction of superior
Supported by Progressives
How many states enacted the Eugine Laws?
When were the Eugine Laws waned?
What did reforms focus on?
poor whites and european immigrants
What kind of jobs did blacks have?
Jim Crow Laws in the South
Ineligabe for noth factory jobs
Worked as domestics or day laborers
What did the steryotypical reformer look like?
What were blacks forced to do?
organize thier own reforms and goups
Who is Booker T Washington?
Founded Tuskegee Institute
Promoted educational oppurtunities
Allied with prominant whites
Believe white support was needed to get ahead
Who is W.E.B. Du Bois?
Strongly against segregation and discrimination
Wrote aritcles and books and published other blacks works
Challenged backs to stand up against dominant cultures
Who was president william McKinley?
Elected in 1896
Foreign affairs in first term
Won 1900 election on prosperity platform
Supported rapid industiralization and trusts
Then changed his view on trusts
Assassinated in 1901
Who was president TR?
Considered a liability by Republican party leaders
Disliked excessive corporate power and potiental violence of working class
Believed wealthy should help the poor
Increased fed govt role in regulation
Only opposed monopolies that were against public interests
What was TR's Square Deal?
Increased regulation of business
Workers right to organize
8 hour workdays
pure food and durg laws
Income and nheridance taxes on wealthy
How many times did TR use Sherman Antitrust act in law suits?
40 law suits
What set max RR rates and strengthened ICC?
How did TR see America's landscape?
central to democratic spirit
natural resourses were vital to economic, political strenght
Who did resorces belong to?
When did US Forest service start?
When did the Antiuilties Act start?
Who is Ida Tarbell?
Teacher and Muckraker
Hitory of Standard Oil Company (1904)
Exposed monopolistic business practices
Contributed to public outrage and support for antitrust legislation
inspired other muckrakers
What was the timeline for the Coal Strike of 1902?
May: PA mine workers struck over wages and safety
Threatened coal availibility
June: TR ordered investigation
October: no progress; TR meeting
Public support grew
Strike ended late Oct
Increased union membership
What book did Upton Sinclair write and why?
The Jungle (1906)
Harsh critism of meat packing industry in chicago
Public more concerned with meat than worker conditions
meat sells cut in half abroad
Why was the Food and Drug Legislator, Meat Inspection Act (1906), and Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) put in place?
in response to Sinclair's the Jungle
public outrage over unsafe and unsanitary food
What was the Panic of 1907?
Reseccion began in 1906
severe economic crisis
NYSE plunged 50%
Runs on banks
Knickerboxer TRust Company collapsed
What was the major impacts of the Panic of 1907?
Production imports fell
JP Morgan and others personally contributed money
What was the Federal Reserve Act?
Responce to Panic of 1907
Gave control to National Monentary Commission and banking system
What happened with the election of 1912?
Taft won 1908
Split in Republican Party; Conservatives and Progressives (Bull Moose) led by TR
Democrat Wilson won