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Flashcards in Progressive Era Deck (101):
1

When was the Gilded Age?

1870s and 1880s

2

What were the major points during the Gilded Age?

US as world's main industrial power
Industrialists and finacnciers formed trusts
Robber Barons
Criticism of unfair practicces and poor worker freatment

3

Who founded Standard Oil cCOmpany and when?

Rockefeller in 1867

4

What did the Standard Oil Act do?

Controled 90% of US oil refining and alost hte entire petrolum industry
Other industries followed this example

5

Sherman Antitrust Act 1890 had what kind of impact for a decade after its passage?

little

6

What caused the Panic of 1893?

Overspeculatoin during 1880s

7

What happened in the Panic of 1893?

Banks, RRs, and other companies failed
Unemployment, homelessness, and financial ruin
Refrom minded Americans began to organize

8

Whats the overview of Progressivism?

Making progress
Variety of organizaton and interests
not a cohesive movement
3 broad catagories: social,, economic, political reform

9

What were local changes?

highschools
laygrounds
less corruption
better sewage
beautification
settlement houses

10

What were state changes?

reduced overcrowded
safety measures in factories
workers compostions
restricted child labor
minimum wage
EX: WI and La Follette

11

Women became more involved in what?

social and political causes
Mainly middle and upper class
Aimed causes at lower class to increase moral behavior
Ex: YWCA and National Consumer League

12

What are muckrakers?

Journalists who exposed corruption and social injustices
Termed by TR
Works were published in popular magazines
Ex: Riis, Steffens, Tarbell, Baker

13

Who was Jabob Riis?

Photographed ad wrote about the conditions in tenaments and factories and on the streets
How the other half lives (1890)
Set the stage for Progressive urban reformers

14

Why did Immigrants come to America?

job oppurtunities and relgigous freedom
Mainly southern and eastern europe and jewish

15

How were immigrants treated in AMerica?

ethnic enclaves in large cities
poor conditions
faced prejudice and discriminaiton

16

Who founded the Hull House in Chicago and when?

Jane Addams and Stair
1889

17

What was the hull house?

a community center for the poor
settlement home
offered classes, concerts, lectures, clubs
Hull House workers lived in hte community

18

What was seen as the root of urban problems?

economc desperation

19

Were most relief programs private or public?

private

20

Who replaced volunteers in charities and relief programs?

paid case workers

21

Tensions rose between charities and who?

settlement houses

22

When did chartices and settlement houses work toward a common goal?

1900

23

What were the bad things about tenaments?

poor sanitation
fire hazord
lack of basic comforts
moral indecencies

24

When was the Tenament house Act?

1901

25

What did Taylorism increase?

automation

26

Who was the first managemtn consultant?

Fredrick Taylor

27

What did a manager consultant do?

help companies maximize worker efficiency

28

What resulted from manager consultants?

workers and managers complained of less autonomy
did not offer workerslog term economic success

29

What were the cons of being a factory worker?

growing enployment insecurities
fear of injury or death at work
assembly line workers get paid by the task
women and children paid less
very few blacks
workers began to organize

30

What were sweat shops?

factories with terrible working conditions, low wages, long hours
homebased piecework
garment and cigar industires
worked by immigrants
mostly women and some children

31

How many under 16 year olds had jobs in 1900?

1.75 million

32

Who campained agaist child labor ad higher adult wages?

Progressives

33

Who were advocates for antichild labor?

Mother Jones
Children's Crusade
National Child Labor Committee
US Children's Bureau

34

When did the National Child labor committee begin?

1904

35

Which states had CHild labor laws?

Northern

36

Who photographed childrens' labor?

Hine

37

When was the Fair Labor Standards Act passed?

1938

38

Why did the triangle shirtwaist fire hapen?

locked doors
highly flamible materials
no extinguisher
few exits

39

When was the triangle shirtwaist fire?

March 25 1911

40

How many died from the triangle shirt waist fire?

146
mainly immingrant young women

41

What was the result of hte traingle shirtwasit fire?

led to public outcry
increased legislation for safety meaures

42

Who founded the National Consumers League?

Florence Kelley 1899

43

What was the National Consumers League?

Run primarily by women
Pushed for fair and humane manufactoring of consumer products
Advocated for state and natonal minimum wage and max work hour laws

44

WWhat program was the Nationa Cnsumer League beginning?

White Label

45

What court case was with the National Consumers League?

Muller v. Orgeon (1908)

46

Why did groups of workers organize?

to negotiate with employers

47

Industrial unins at the turn of the 20th century tended to be what?

more radical IWW

48

Why did labor unions emerge?

As a response to mid 1890s economic depression

49

When was the Pullmen Strike?

1894

50

What caused the pullman strike?

pullman company cut wages but did not lower rents

51

Who joined the American RR union?

Pullman workers

52

What happened during hte Pullmen strike?

Strike shut down the passanger RR systems
Federal intervension led to violence, 34 dead
Government broke the strike

53

Who was Samuel Gompers?

President of American Federation of Labor (AF of L)
Established collective bargaining procedures
Stressed workers benifits in exchange for union dues

54

How radical was teh AF of L?

less radical than other unions

55

What was the Good governemtn movement?

progressives aimed to increase transparity and honesty in city government
Reduce influence of immigrants and working class in the city

56

What were direct primaries?

aloows voters, not party leaders or boses, to directly choose canadates
La Follette of WI
WI adopted first direct primary law in 1903

57

Who was Lincoln Steppens?

Muckraker who exposed govt corruption
Articles in McClures
The Shame fo the Cities (1904)
Uncovered direct evidence of graft
Increased public outrage

58

What is an initiative?

citizens vote on a proposed state law

59

What is a referendum?

Citizens vote on an exsisting law

60

How did Progressives view state legislators?

corrupt
beholder to wealthy business interests

61

Who became the first state to enact both initiative and referendum and when?

SD
1898

62

What was the 17th ammendment?

THe people vote for the Senetes
1913

63

Who chose the senetes before f17th ammendment?

state legislators
there was corruption, bribery, and deadlocks with that

64

Who wrote, THe Treason of the Senate?

Phillipps

65

What did women suffrage include?

toward more democratic govt

66

What was formed for women suffrage in 1890?

NAWSA

67

More women served as what kind of leaders?

progressive

68

When was the 19th ammendment passed and what was it?

1919
Women suffrage

69

What are the examples of women progressive leaders?

Anthony
Catt
Paul

70

What was the Temprace Movemnet?

alcohol was felt to be undermining society's moral fabric
Wanted to ban alcohol

71

What groups formed for the Temprace Movement?

WCTU
Anti Saloon League

72

What did hte Temprace Movement target?

immigrants
corrupt politicians

73

What was Morality Policing?

Moral improvemnts for immigrants, working class, and the young

74

What did the Morality Policy target?

leisure activities like jazz ad ragtime
rules against immoral dancing
whites thought the music had too much black culture

75

What was the Eugenics Movement?

Believed that those with inferior genes hreated the nations future
sought to curb reproduction of inferior and support reproduction of superior
Supported by Progressives

76

How many states enacted the Eugine Laws?

8

77

When were the Eugine Laws waned?

after WWII

78

What did reforms focus on?

poor whites and european immigrants

79

What kind of jobs did blacks have?

menial
Jim Crow Laws in the South
Ineligabe for noth factory jobs
Worked as domestics or day laborers

80

What did the steryotypical reformer look like?

Middle class
whites
highly racist

81

What were blacks forced to do?

organize thier own reforms and goups
Ida Wells

82

Who is Booker T Washington?

Founded Tuskegee Institute
Promoted educational oppurtunities
Allied with prominant whites
Believe white support was needed to get ahead
African American

83

Who is W.E.B. Du Bois?

Strongly against segregation and discrimination
Wrote aritcles and books and published other blacks works
Challenged backs to stand up against dominant cultures
African American

84

Who was president william McKinley?

Elected in 1896
Foreign affairs in first term
Won 1900 election on prosperity platform
Supported rapid industiralization and trusts
Then changed his view on trusts
Assassinated in 1901

85

Who was president TR?

Considered a liability by Republican party leaders
Disliked excessive corporate power and potiental violence of working class
Believed wealthy should help the poor
Increased fed govt role in regulation
Only opposed monopolies that were against public interests
Popular

86

What was TR's Square Deal?

Increased regulation of business
Workers right to organize
8 hour workdays
pure food and durg laws
Income and nheridance taxes on wealthy

87

How many times did TR use Sherman Antitrust act in law suits?

40 law suits

88

What set max RR rates and strengthened ICC?

Hephburn ACt

89

How did TR see America's landscape?

central to democratic spirit
natural resourses were vital to economic, political strenght

90

Who did resorces belong to?

The public

91

When did US Forest service start?

1905

92

When did the Antiuilties Act start?

1906

93

Who is Ida Tarbell?

Teacher and Muckraker
Hitory of Standard Oil Company (1904)
Exposed monopolistic business practices
Contributed to public outrage and support for antitrust legislation
inspired other muckrakers

94

What was the timeline for the Coal Strike of 1902?

May: PA mine workers struck over wages and safety
Threatened coal availibility
June: TR ordered investigation
October: no progress; TR meeting
Public support grew
Morgan's commisison
Strike ended late Oct
Increased union membership

95

What book did Upton Sinclair write and why?

The Jungle (1906)
Harsh critism of meat packing industry in chicago
Public more concerned with meat than worker conditions
meat sells cut in half abroad

96

Why was the Food and Drug Legislator, Meat Inspection Act (1906), and Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) put in place?

in response to Sinclair's the Jungle
public outrage over unsafe and unsanitary food

97

What was the Panic of 1907?

Reseccion began in 1906
severe economic crisis
NYSE plunged 50%
Runs on banks
Knickerboxer TRust Company collapsed

98

What was the major impacts of the Panic of 1907?

Unemployment
Bankrupts
Production imports fell
JP Morgan and others personally contributed money

99

What was the Federal Reserve Act?

Responce to Panic of 1907
Gave control to National Monentary Commission and banking system
1913

100

What happened with the election of 1912?

Taft won 1908
Split in Republican Party; Conservatives and Progressives (Bull Moose) led by TR
Democrat Wilson won

101

What did the progressive era set precedents for?

governmental protectons against unchecked capatilism