Flashcards in WWI Complete War Deck (102):
What was the first chain reaction in WWI?
The Spark: Franz Fernand and wife were assassinated on June 28, 1914 by Black Hand
What was the second chain reaction in WWI?
Austria Hungary blames Serbia: issues harsh set of demands on Serbia
What was the third chian reaction in WWI?
Serbia unable to meet the demands
What waas the fourth chain reaction in WWI?
Jully 28, 1914, Austria Hungary after confering with Germany declares war on Serbia
Germany issues a Blank check of unconditional support
What was the fifth chain feaction in WWI?
Pan Slavism: Russia (largest Slav nation comes to defend Serbia and mobilize for war
What is mobilizing?
undeclared declaration of war
What is the sixth chain reaciton of WWI?
Germany: Austria Hungary ally declares war on Russia
Germany: declares war on France, ally with Russia
Exercized Schleffen Plan
What is the Schleffen Plan?
2 front war with France and Russia iniciated by Germany
Get France out of the war quick
What was the seventh chain reaction of WWI?
Germany invades Belgium (enroute to France)
What is the eighth chain reaction of WWI?
Britain honors long standing Belium alliance and declares war on Germany
WHere was the question "Who started the War" answered?
Paris Peace Conference with the Treaty of Versallies
What weapons were used in WWI?
grenades (potato masher)
bolt action rifle
What was WWI fighting style?
Divide and conquer
WHy did Napoleonic Style fail?
due to modern weapons (machine guns)
What are the MAIN causes of WWI?
Standing army in the millions
Glorification of war
War is good and neccisary for each generation to prove itself
2nd industrialization had mass production
Europe had Franco PRussian War (seasonal war)
Europeans expected WWI to be a seasonal war
Very naive to new weapons
Most significant cause of WWI
What was Europe like in 1800s?
relitively peace and prosperity
Triple Alliances: Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy (Italy changes teams and Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria joins)
Triple Entente: Britain, France, and Russia (later Italy and is called Allies)
Main threat was Germany
Italy changed becuse Briation made a secret treaty to gie it more land
WIlson 14 points
Common Enemy Theory
Most industrial nations imperialize
Industrial naitons need raw materials and new markets
Scramble for Africa
Balance of power between European nations
extreme joy in one country winning
Standing army in the millions
WHat were the Balkans?
Powder Keg of Europe
They were apart of the weakest empire (Ottoman)
South Central Europe next to Italy
What were Seasonal Wars?
wars that last just a few months
Franco Prussian War
WHo wer the Black Hand?
Where did Serbia want to move to?
land with sea
The Austria Hungary invasion of _ brought Russia into the War?
What was the German Kaiser during WWI was who?
What was Germany's secret treaty to convince Mexico to join the war?
Who was the Commander of the American Expeditionary Force during WWI?
WHo was the president during WWI?
What years were WWI?
German Kriegsmarine pioneered the use of _ to sink enemy ship.
WHat was the pledge that Germny would stop unrestricted submarine warfare?
WHat type of warfare was used by both sides on the Western Front?
no mans land
over the top
For the first 3 years of the war, the US practiced waht kind of policy?
What was Wilson's campain for the 1916 election?
he kept us out of war
How was most of the money used to fund the war was raised?
sales of Liberty Bonds
The Commitee of Public Information was set up in 1917 for what purpose?
To publicize and popularize the war
What laws aloowd the US govt to silence or imprision those who oppose the war?
Sedition Act of 1917
The AMerican soldiers in WWI were nicknamed what by allies troops?
WHo was the top fighter pilot during the war?
Who was the Red Baron?
What political faction orchestrated the Nov 1917 revolution in Russia?
What happened at Gallipoli?
April 25 1915 the Allies land a multinational force on the Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire
Austrialian/New Zealand headed by British (Anzac) vs Turkish Ottomans
The Turkish Army successfully defeats the peninsula and stalemate seets in with both sides developing a system of trenches
January 9, 1916 the allies complete their withdrawl from Gallipoli having incurred over 250,000 causalties including 46,000 dead
Mouth of the Black Sea
Soldiers were sacrificed
What happened in the Battle of Verdun 1916?
The German attack on Verdun on Feburary 21, 1916 was a complete suprise to the French
German heavy artilery quickly reduced French trench system into isolated pieces, forcing soldiers to fight in small groups with no tactical links
Considered one of the most brutal battles because over 300,000 dead and 750,000 wounded with not much gained
Remembered as the battlefront with the highest density of dead per square yard
In France near Luxemburg
The Battle of Somme 1916?
British general Haig orders a massive bombardment of the German lines that begins June 24, 1916 and lasts over a week
German troops hunkered down under the bombardments "the sound that could be heard across the English channel"
July 1, 1916 - British attack German lines suffering the most causalties in a single day in British military history - 20,000 killed and 40,000 wounded
Ended Nov 18, 1916 with British gaining less than 10 miles of land for their efforts
In France on Somme River near Belgium
The 2nd Battle of Ypres 1915?
First time Germans use poisionous gas
The 3rd Battle of Ypres 1917?
June 7, 1917 - British forces set off giant mines under German lines causing great damage
British troops then advanced and captured German lines
In Agust 1917, unusual amounts of rain turned the battlefield into mud
On Nov 6, 1917, the Allies get small gains but not the breakthrough hoped for
In Belgium (Passiondale)
Men died drowning in liquid mud
The 1st Battle of Marne?
September 4, German army advanced rapidly through Belgium and northern France, panicing france
Troops were rushed to the line in taxis
With the help of the Britsh, they haulted the Germans
The 2nd Battle of Marne?
End of May, Germans reached Marne after the successes of Ludendorffs offensives that year
After 4 years, Germany goes back to where they began
The Battle of Cambrai 1917?
On Nov 20, 1917 British launched the first attack with tanks at Germany
Why did the US join WWI?
German torpedoed Lustania
German sank US Sussex (started Sussex Pledge)
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Wilson wanted to make the world safer for democracy
We are English domant
Who were running for the 1916 election?
"He kept us out of war"
What is the Zimmerman Note?
Germany to Mexico
Promised AZ,NM, and TX to Mexico if they won
When did America declare war on Germany?
April 6, 1917
What did WIlson's 14 points foreshadow?
League of Nations
What was Wilson's plan with the League of Nations?
Wilson's hope for a system of collective security
What was the Committee of Public Information and who headed it?
Sell americans on war and sell the world WIlsonian war aim
How were German AMericans treated?
Had to remove pieces and words
Why was the Sedition Act of 1918 and the Espionage Act 1917 put into place?
To censer and punish those who spoke out against the government
Schenck v. US
When did WIlson start preparing for war?
What was the War Industry Board?
federal govt can take a central role in economic planning in moments of crisis
Who was in charge of Food Administration and what was this?
Tried to get volunteers to not eat certain foods on certain days
When was the 18th Ammendment passed and why?
What labor union supported WWI and US?
AF of L
What labor union was anti war?
Industrial Workers of the War (IWW)
What was the Great Migration?
Blacks went north during hte war for industrial jobs and to escape Jim Crow Laws
What women suffrage movemtn supported war?
National American Women Suffrage Association
What was passed for women suffrage?
Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act: federally financed instruciton in maternal and infant health care
What AMerican force was going to fight in Europe and who led it?
American Expeditorary Force
What did the draft help do?
4 million men
women served in military and sos did blacks
What happened in 1918?
Germany went all out and threatened to take over France
AMeicans were put in Chateau Thierry
_ significant engagement of American troops in a Europena war
What did the 2nd battle fo Marne mark?
Geramns start to withdraw
WHat was the American Army and John Pershing stratagie?
Meuse Angonne offense
When did Germany surrender?
Nov 11 1918
Why were Republicans mad at Wilson after WWI?
Wilson went to the Paris Peace Conference instead of Lodge who was the Senete of Foreign Relations
Who were considered the big four at the PPC?
What was the Treaty of Versailles?
given to Germany with only 4 out of 23 Wilson points
Wilson had to abandon some of the 14 points to keep the League of Nations
What happened to minority peple from imperil dynasties?
they were released
What were Wilson's first 5 points?
abolish secret treaties
Freedom of seas appealed to Germans and Americans who distrusted sea power
Removal of economic barriers among nations
Reduction of armament burdern
An adjustment of colonial claims in the interest of both native peoples and colonizers
WHat was the overview of the Treaty of Versailles?
Punish Germany flly for starting the war
What was the League of nations and how did the US respond?
Congrss did not want to join LON because we could be pulled into any war
US does not join LON
What does US do after WWI?
Revert back to isolation
What happened in the 1920 eleciton?
Harding won with "return to democracy"
What was Red Summer?
Race riots in Northern Cities from Greata Migration
What resultead from the fear of Communisim?
1st Red Scare
What helped wwi end?
British blockaded German supplies
US were fresh and happy to fight
Strikes in Berlin
German sailors overthrew superior powers
What happened in October 1918?
abdicates means a leader steped down from power`
On NOv 11, 1918 at 11 am, where and what was signed?
Ferdinand Foch's railway carriagee
What was the last german efort to win called?
What was simular between Russia and Germany that led to the Revolutions?
both were hurting
peace, land, bread
What is the war guild clause?
Germany to except blame for starting the war
What was the tole of WWI?
8.5 million died
17 mill woudned
_ clauses dealt with the establishment of the LON and _ dealth with Germany punishment?
War guilt clause
Resparations: Germany must pay 6,600 mill to pay for the damage of war
Army: reduced to 100,000 men and no tanks
Navy: Germany could only have 6 ships and no subs
Airforce: no airforce
Rhineland: keep free of German military personel and weapons
What country had the most soldiers, most soldiers wounded, and number of people missing?
What country had the most death?
What are the territorial clauses?
Anschluss: Germany could not ally with Austio Hungary
Land: Germany lost a lot of other coutnries and LON took control of German colonies
What are the Big Four and the leaders?