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Flashcards in World War II Deck (140):
1

Why did US open up a formal recognition of hte Soviet?

Worried about growin power of Germany
Possible trade with Soviet

2

How did FDR attempt to improve relations with Latin Amecia?

Good Neibor Policy
US denounces rmed intervention

3

Reciprocal Trade Agreement?

1934
Reduciton of US tariffs if other countries do the same

4

During 1930s, what totalitarian regimes emerged?

Italy: Mussolini Fascits party comes to power in 1922
Soviet: Stalin
Germany: Hitler and Nazi party come to power in 1933
Japan: Milaristic govt comes to power under Tojo in 1941

5

What did totalitarian countries begin to do?

militarize and expand its borders

6

How did Japan expand?

1931
Conquered Manchuria (threatened open door policy)

7

What did Japan do with the LON?

withdrew and built up their navy

8

What did Italy do with expansion?

Attacked Ethiopia in 1935

9

What was the Nye Commission?

1934
Americans were disillustioned with their participation in WWI
Ideology that American bankers and arms manufactorers caused US entry into WWI

10

Why did Congress pass a series of Neutrality Acts?

1935-37
keep the US neutral in the event of conflict
Outlaw arms sales
No loans to nations at war
US could not help out even if a country was the innocent victim of agression

11

Spanish Civil War?

Fascist govt of Francisco Franco overthrew the Loyalist govt

12

How did Hitler openly violate the Treaty of Versailes?

occupied Rhineland (1934)
Built up German military
Annexed Austria (1938)
Demands the sudetenland

13

Munich Conference?

Leaders agree to hand over the Sudetenland to Germany
Hitler agrees to to not demand anymore land

14

What does the Munich Conference come to symbolize?

failed policy of appeasement

15

When did Japan invade China?

1937

16

What did Japan invading China threaten?

Open Door Policy

17

What ship did Japan sink?

US gunboat Panay
Japan quickly apoligized

18

What did Germany and Soviet sign?

Non-agression pact on August 23, 1939

19

What did the non agression pact between Soviet and Germany allow?

Germany to attack Poland without having to worry about a two front war
Hitler and Stalin secretly agree to divide Poland between them

20

When did Germany invade Poland?

Sep 1, 1939

21

What started WWII?

Germany invaded Poland

22

By June, 1940, Hitler conquered most of what?

Europe

23

What type of policy did US practice until 1941?

Neutraliaty but did not want axis to win

24

Faced with the prospect of Hitler taking over all of Europe, what did congress do?

Amend hte Neutrality legislaiton

25

Neurtrality Acts (1939)?

Countires could buy weapons as long as they paid for them in cash and carried them in their own ships (cash and carry)
Helped countries who were victims

26

What happened June 1940?

most of france is defeated

27

When was the 1st peace time conscription law adovpted?

Sept 1940

28

What happened Aug 1940?

Germany began to bomb Britain (Battle of Britain)

29

What did the Committee to Defend America advocate?

helping England and allies

30

What did America First Committee advocate?

Opposed US involvement

31

Destroyers for Bases?

Sept 1940
The US would give England US destroyers in exchange for military cbases in western hemisphere

32

What was interesting about the Election of 1940?

FDR breaks 2 term tradition of Washington and wins an unprecedented 3rd term

33

What made FDR create the Lend Lease Bill?

Threat of Axis power victory

34

What is the Lend Lease Bill?

March 1941
Eliminated the cash carry requirements
Us would send supplies to counties that were victims of agression
By being the "the great arsenal of democracy" the US would avoid having to fight

35

How was the US not truely neutral?

Economic declaration of war
US factories shift to all out war production (bye GD)

36

What was operation Barbarossa?

June 22 1941
Hitler invades Soviet

37

Allied Convoy system?

US begins escorting lend leasse suplies across the atlantic ocean

38

Atlantic Conference?

FDR and Churchill secretly met off the coast of Newfoundland
Atlantic Charter outlined postwar goals

39

What were the Atlantic Charter postwar goals?

Self determination
Free trade
No territorail gains
New collectie security organization

40

Did US enter WWII from events in Europe?

No

41

Whata did US do alone?

Trying to check Japanese expansion in Asia

42

Who does FDR order embargos against?

Japan (Steel, iron, etc)

43

Who does Japan occupy in July 1941?

French Indochina

44

What does FDR order against Japan?

all Japanese assets frozzen and a ban on oil sales
Negotiations occurs between US and Japan

45

When did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?

Dec 7, 1941

46

Coup?

Sudden seize of govt

47

Mein Kampf?

My Struggles
Hitlers blueprint of conquering Europe and outlined how to erraticate jews

48

Reish Stag?

Representatives in govt like Senete

49

Arschlass?

Annex Austria to Germany

50

Lebenaraum?

Additional territory considered by the country

51

What are the 8 traits of Fascism?

Govt control of media - cencorship
Extreme nationalism
A command economy
Govt control economy
Strict discipline
Rule by a dictator
Blind loyalty to the leader
Use of violence and terror for obedience
Strong military

52

Wht were the common characteristics for militarism and fascism?

intense nationalism and wanting to expand

53

What effectively ended the isoltionist movment by the US?

Attack on Pearl Harbor

54

How was AMerica already mobilized for war before Pearl Harbor?

Selective Service Act
Factories were producing lend lease supplies for allies

55

WHo were the allied powers?

UK
Soviet
US
France
China

56

Did the federal govt expand or shink compared to WWI and ND?

expand

57

What did WWII bring to the homefront?

huge mobilization

58

What did WWII end?

Great Depression

59

War Producitons Board?

allocated resources for hte war effort

60

Office of Price Admin?

froze prices, wages, and rationed goods such as meat, gas, sugar

61

Americans industrial output was a huge factor in what?

eventually an allied victory

62

Office of Research and Development?

contracted scientist and univerities to help in tech department
Made sonar, radar, rockets

63

Manhattan Project (1952)?

top secret program headed by Oppenhelmer
Secret program with UK and US and kept Soviet out
Fist atomic bomb tested July 1945

64

2nd Great Migration?

over a million blacks left the south in search of jobs in war industries

65

Where was discrimination common?

in defense work

66

In 1943, waht broke out in cities such as Detroit and NY?

Race Riots

67

Who threatened to march Washington if discrimination in defense work was not adressed?

A Philip Randolph

68

What did FDR do to appease A Philip Randolph?

Executive order 8802

69

Where did blacks serve?

In segregated military units

70

Double Victory Campain?

victory against fascism abroad and against racism at home

71

Memberhsip in which organizaiotn increased?

NAACP

72

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE):

formed in 1942 and fought against discrimination

73

Demand for workers in the defense industry provided oppurtunities for thousands of what kind of americans?

Mexican

74

Bracero Programs (1942)?

alowed mexicans farmworkers to work in the US without formal immigration proceedings

75

Racial tensions between white soldiers and Mexican residence in _ led to _ _ in 1943

Los Angles
Zoot Suit Riots

76

What minority group also received opportunities in defense work and in the military?

Native Americans

77

Who used their native languege to communicate in the Pacific theater of the war?

Navajo code talkers

78

ABout how many Indians did not return to reservaaation life after WWII?

1/2

79

WHere could women serve in the military and how many women served?

Noncombat roles
over 200,000

80

As the demand for industrial and defense jobs increased, what happened in regard to women?

nearly 5 mill women entered the workforce

81

Who was the symbol of women in the workforce?

Rosie the Riveter

82

What was the relation between men and women wages?

Women were expected to get paid less

83

Could women stay in the workforce after WWII?

No, they were expected to leave

84

Where did people move to for defense work?

Midwest and West

85

Where did people migrate to post war?

Sunbelt

86

Executive Order 9006?

Required that all people of Japnese descent on the West Coast be relocated to internment camps

87

Nisei?

2nd generation Japanese Americans

88

How many Japanese Americans were relocated to how many interment camps?

100,000
1 out of 10 camps

89

Where was the Japanese population not evacuated?

Hawaii

90

Koresmatsu v. US (1944)?

The Supreme Court upheld the relocation as necessary for national security

91

Who did thousands of Japanese Americans fought for?

US

92

Where did the Alied focus first?

European theater of war

93

Where did the Soviets stop German advancements?

Stalingrad

94

Wherer did allies focus first?

North Africa into Italy

95

D-Day?

6/6/44
Masive second front opened

96

What didd the Big 3 discuss?

military
strategy
plan for post war world

97

Casablanca Conference?

FDR and Churchill met
They wanted unconditional surrender and invade Sicily/Italy first

98

Tehran Conference?

Big 3 met for the first time
They discussed opening of 2nd front planned, fate of eastern europe

99

Yalta Conference?

They wanted Germany to be divided, Free elections in Eastern Europe, Soviets will help against Japan, Create UN

100

What was the US military largely responsible for?

The fight against Japan

101

Following Pearl Harbor, where did Japan occupy a lot of territory?

A lot of China and Asia

102

What type of strategy did US pursue?

Island Hoping Stratgy
Win control over territory to get closer to mainland Japan

103

Potsdam Conference?

Japna warned to surrender unconditionally or be destroyed

104

When and where was the first atomic bomb dropped?

8/6/45
Hiroshima

105

When did Soviets enter war against Japan?

8/8/45

106

when and where was the second atomic bomb dropped?

8/9/45
Nagasaki

107

Following WWII, the US will be the dominate country in waht?

politics and military

108

Who created totalitarianism?

Mussolini

109

Resons for rise of fascism?

Italy was ruled by Mussolini
Economic Distress
Fear of Communism
ppealed to nationalism
Mussolini's leadership

110

Who was Italy led by from 1922-43?

Il Duce

111

When was Mussolini's March on Rome?

Oct 1922

112

What was Italy like under Fascism?

Controlled labor and industry
Greated pubic works
Controlled religion
Required miitary service
Built Alliances

113

What is the Weimar Republic?

1919-33
Hitler formed the Naitonal Socialist Party (advoated naitonalism and militarism)
Replced imperial rule

114

What was German inflation like?

1923
One dollar woth 100,000 marks

115

What was teh weakness to the Weimar Republic?

Hitler's charism and leadership

116

What were the factors in nazi rise?

economic distress
naitonalism
fear of communism
anti-semitism
hitler's charisma and leadhership

117

When did Nazis seize power?

1933

118

What were the German elections like during GD?

Nazis narrowly won
Ended Weimar Republic
Hitler became dictator

119

When was te policy of requiring jews to wear starts extend to occupied areas including Jewsish ghettos?

Sep 1, 41

120

What was the third reich?

Nationalist propaganda was major
persecutin of jews
military built up
territorial expansion

121

When was the Rome Berlin Axis?

1936

122

Kellogg Briand Pact (1928)?

Propsed by Kellogg (US) and Briand (France)
Outlawed war
Germany, Italy, and Japan violated these pacts

123

When was Fascist agression?

1931-1939

124

Who took over Manchuria?

Japan

125

Who took over Ethiopia?

Italy

126

Who took over Spain?

Franco (Fascist)
Aided by Germany and Italy who actually fought in the war

127

Who took over China?

Japan

128

Who took over Autria?

Germany

129

Who took over Czechoslovokia?

Germany

130

Who took over Albania?

Italy

131

Who took over Poland?

Germany

132

When was German remilitarizaiation?

1935-36

133

What were the basic causes of WWII?

Militarism
Imperialism
Nationalism
Totalitarianism

134

What were the subsidiary causes of WWII?

Failure of appeasement and collective security
US neutrality legislation

135

Lebensraum?

living space
Needed more pure Germans so he conquered more lands

136

Munich Agreement?

between Chamberlain and Hitler that Germany would not conquer any more land, and if did, would declare war
Peace of our time

137

Nevel Chamberland?

Prime Minister of UK who believed that appeasement toward Germany would result in lasting peace

138

What did Lendburg want the US to do?

stay neutral

139

Stimson Doctrine?

the policy declared in a note to Japan and China that the US would not recognize any international territorial changes brought about by force. It was enacted after Japan's military seizure of Manchuria in 1931.

140

Blitzrieg?

A form of warfare used by German forces in World War II. In a blitzkrieg, troops in vehicles, such as tanks, made quick surprise strikes with support from airplanes.