Flashcards in World War II Deck (140):
Why did US open up a formal recognition of hte Soviet?
Worried about growin power of Germany
Possible trade with Soviet
How did FDR attempt to improve relations with Latin Amecia?
Good Neibor Policy
US denounces rmed intervention
Reciprocal Trade Agreement?
Reduciton of US tariffs if other countries do the same
During 1930s, what totalitarian regimes emerged?
Italy: Mussolini Fascits party comes to power in 1922
Germany: Hitler and Nazi party come to power in 1933
Japan: Milaristic govt comes to power under Tojo in 1941
What did totalitarian countries begin to do?
militarize and expand its borders
How did Japan expand?
Conquered Manchuria (threatened open door policy)
What did Japan do with the LON?
withdrew and built up their navy
What did Italy do with expansion?
Attacked Ethiopia in 1935
What was the Nye Commission?
Americans were disillustioned with their participation in WWI
Ideology that American bankers and arms manufactorers caused US entry into WWI
Why did Congress pass a series of Neutrality Acts?
keep the US neutral in the event of conflict
Outlaw arms sales
No loans to nations at war
US could not help out even if a country was the innocent victim of agression
Spanish Civil War?
Fascist govt of Francisco Franco overthrew the Loyalist govt
How did Hitler openly violate the Treaty of Versailes?
occupied Rhineland (1934)
Built up German military
Annexed Austria (1938)
Demands the sudetenland
Leaders agree to hand over the Sudetenland to Germany
Hitler agrees to to not demand anymore land
What does the Munich Conference come to symbolize?
failed policy of appeasement
When did Japan invade China?
What did Japan invading China threaten?
Open Door Policy
What ship did Japan sink?
US gunboat Panay
Japan quickly apoligized
What did Germany and Soviet sign?
Non-agression pact on August 23, 1939
What did the non agression pact between Soviet and Germany allow?
Germany to attack Poland without having to worry about a two front war
Hitler and Stalin secretly agree to divide Poland between them
When did Germany invade Poland?
Sep 1, 1939
What started WWII?
Germany invaded Poland
By June, 1940, Hitler conquered most of what?
What type of policy did US practice until 1941?
Neutraliaty but did not want axis to win
Faced with the prospect of Hitler taking over all of Europe, what did congress do?
Amend hte Neutrality legislaiton
Neurtrality Acts (1939)?
Countires could buy weapons as long as they paid for them in cash and carried them in their own ships (cash and carry)
Helped countries who were victims
What happened June 1940?
most of france is defeated
When was the 1st peace time conscription law adovpted?
What happened Aug 1940?
Germany began to bomb Britain (Battle of Britain)
What did the Committee to Defend America advocate?
helping England and allies
What did America First Committee advocate?
Opposed US involvement
Destroyers for Bases?
The US would give England US destroyers in exchange for military cbases in western hemisphere
What was interesting about the Election of 1940?
FDR breaks 2 term tradition of Washington and wins an unprecedented 3rd term
What made FDR create the Lend Lease Bill?
Threat of Axis power victory
What is the Lend Lease Bill?
Eliminated the cash carry requirements
Us would send supplies to counties that were victims of agression
By being the "the great arsenal of democracy" the US would avoid having to fight
How was the US not truely neutral?
Economic declaration of war
US factories shift to all out war production (bye GD)
What was operation Barbarossa?
June 22 1941
Hitler invades Soviet
Allied Convoy system?
US begins escorting lend leasse suplies across the atlantic ocean
FDR and Churchill secretly met off the coast of Newfoundland
Atlantic Charter outlined postwar goals
What were the Atlantic Charter postwar goals?
No territorail gains
New collectie security organization
Did US enter WWII from events in Europe?
Whata did US do alone?
Trying to check Japanese expansion in Asia
Who does FDR order embargos against?
Japan (Steel, iron, etc)
Who does Japan occupy in July 1941?
What does FDR order against Japan?
all Japanese assets frozzen and a ban on oil sales
Negotiations occurs between US and Japan
When did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?
Dec 7, 1941
Sudden seize of govt
Hitlers blueprint of conquering Europe and outlined how to erraticate jews
Representatives in govt like Senete
Annex Austria to Germany
Additional territory considered by the country
What are the 8 traits of Fascism?
Govt control of media - cencorship
A command economy
Govt control economy
Rule by a dictator
Blind loyalty to the leader
Use of violence and terror for obedience
Wht were the common characteristics for militarism and fascism?
intense nationalism and wanting to expand
What effectively ended the isoltionist movment by the US?
Attack on Pearl Harbor
How was AMerica already mobilized for war before Pearl Harbor?
Selective Service Act
Factories were producing lend lease supplies for allies
WHo were the allied powers?
Did the federal govt expand or shink compared to WWI and ND?
What did WWII bring to the homefront?
What did WWII end?
War Producitons Board?
allocated resources for hte war effort
Office of Price Admin?
froze prices, wages, and rationed goods such as meat, gas, sugar
Americans industrial output was a huge factor in what?
eventually an allied victory
Office of Research and Development?
contracted scientist and univerities to help in tech department
Made sonar, radar, rockets
Manhattan Project (1952)?
top secret program headed by Oppenhelmer
Secret program with UK and US and kept Soviet out
Fist atomic bomb tested July 1945
2nd Great Migration?
over a million blacks left the south in search of jobs in war industries
Where was discrimination common?
in defense work
In 1943, waht broke out in cities such as Detroit and NY?
Who threatened to march Washington if discrimination in defense work was not adressed?
A Philip Randolph
What did FDR do to appease A Philip Randolph?
Executive order 8802
Where did blacks serve?
In segregated military units
Double Victory Campain?
victory against fascism abroad and against racism at home
Memberhsip in which organizaiotn increased?
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE):
formed in 1942 and fought against discrimination
Demand for workers in the defense industry provided oppurtunities for thousands of what kind of americans?
Bracero Programs (1942)?
alowed mexicans farmworkers to work in the US without formal immigration proceedings
Racial tensions between white soldiers and Mexican residence in _ led to _ _ in 1943
Zoot Suit Riots
What minority group also received opportunities in defense work and in the military?
Who used their native languege to communicate in the Pacific theater of the war?
Navajo code talkers
ABout how many Indians did not return to reservaaation life after WWII?
WHere could women serve in the military and how many women served?
As the demand for industrial and defense jobs increased, what happened in regard to women?
nearly 5 mill women entered the workforce
Who was the symbol of women in the workforce?
Rosie the Riveter
What was the relation between men and women wages?
Women were expected to get paid less
Could women stay in the workforce after WWII?
No, they were expected to leave
Where did people move to for defense work?
Midwest and West
Where did people migrate to post war?
Executive Order 9006?
Required that all people of Japnese descent on the West Coast be relocated to internment camps
2nd generation Japanese Americans
How many Japanese Americans were relocated to how many interment camps?
1 out of 10 camps
Where was the Japanese population not evacuated?
Koresmatsu v. US (1944)?
The Supreme Court upheld the relocation as necessary for national security
Who did thousands of Japanese Americans fought for?
Where did the Alied focus first?
European theater of war
Where did the Soviets stop German advancements?
Wherer did allies focus first?
North Africa into Italy
Masive second front opened
What didd the Big 3 discuss?
plan for post war world
FDR and Churchill met
They wanted unconditional surrender and invade Sicily/Italy first
Big 3 met for the first time
They discussed opening of 2nd front planned, fate of eastern europe
They wanted Germany to be divided, Free elections in Eastern Europe, Soviets will help against Japan, Create UN
What was the US military largely responsible for?
The fight against Japan
Following Pearl Harbor, where did Japan occupy a lot of territory?
A lot of China and Asia
What type of strategy did US pursue?
Island Hoping Stratgy
Win control over territory to get closer to mainland Japan
Japna warned to surrender unconditionally or be destroyed
When and where was the first atomic bomb dropped?
When did Soviets enter war against Japan?
when and where was the second atomic bomb dropped?
Following WWII, the US will be the dominate country in waht?
politics and military
Who created totalitarianism?
Resons for rise of fascism?
Italy was ruled by Mussolini
Fear of Communism
ppealed to nationalism
Who was Italy led by from 1922-43?
When was Mussolini's March on Rome?
What was Italy like under Fascism?
Controlled labor and industry
Greated pubic works
Required miitary service
What is the Weimar Republic?
Hitler formed the Naitonal Socialist Party (advoated naitonalism and militarism)
Replced imperial rule
What was German inflation like?
One dollar woth 100,000 marks
What was teh weakness to the Weimar Republic?
Hitler's charism and leadership
What were the factors in nazi rise?
fear of communism
hitler's charisma and leadhership
When did Nazis seize power?
What were the German elections like during GD?
Nazis narrowly won
Ended Weimar Republic
Hitler became dictator
When was te policy of requiring jews to wear starts extend to occupied areas including Jewsish ghettos?
Sep 1, 41
What was the third reich?
Nationalist propaganda was major
persecutin of jews
military built up
When was the Rome Berlin Axis?
Kellogg Briand Pact (1928)?
Propsed by Kellogg (US) and Briand (France)
Germany, Italy, and Japan violated these pacts
When was Fascist agression?
Who took over Manchuria?
Who took over Ethiopia?
Who took over Spain?
Aided by Germany and Italy who actually fought in the war
Who took over China?
Who took over Autria?
Who took over Czechoslovokia?
Who took over Albania?
Who took over Poland?
When was German remilitarizaiation?
What were the basic causes of WWII?
What were the subsidiary causes of WWII?
Failure of appeasement and collective security
US neutrality legislation
Needed more pure Germans so he conquered more lands
between Chamberlain and Hitler that Germany would not conquer any more land, and if did, would declare war
Peace of our time
Prime Minister of UK who believed that appeasement toward Germany would result in lasting peace
What did Lendburg want the US to do?
the policy declared in a note to Japan and China that the US would not recognize any international territorial changes brought about by force. It was enacted after Japan's military seizure of Manchuria in 1931.