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Flashcards in Western Jobs-Agricultural Issues Deck (110):
1

When was gold discovered in California?

late 1840s

2

where was gold discovered in 1858?

Pike's Peak CO

3

How long did it normally take before the Fifty Niners took all the gold?

a month or two

4

What is the Comstock Lode?

Nevada
1859
Large amount of gold and silver worth more that $340 million was found there

5

Where were the smaller lucky strikes for gold?

MO
ID
other western states

6

What type of government seemed to rule in gold towns and what resulted?

Anarchy
Ghost towns

7

What happened after all the surface gold was found?

ore breaking machinery was brought in to break the gold bearing guartz (very expensive to do)

8

What was the first state to allow women suffrage and when?

WY 1869

9

What other states allowed for women suffrage and when?

UT 1870
CO 1893
ID 1896

10

What did mining also add to American arts?

folklore and American literature (Bret Harte and Mark Twain)

11

As cities back east boomed in the later half of the 19 centurary, what demand increased sharply?

food and meat

12

The problem of marketing meat profitably to public markets and cities were solved by what?

new transcontiental rr

13

What was cattle being shipped under to the stockyards?

beef barons like Swifts or Armours

14

What industry sprang up?

meat packaging

15

What is the Long Drive?

emerged to become a feeder of the slaughterhouses
Texas cowboys herded cattle across desolate land to railorad termals in KS

16

What were famous cattle stopovers?

Dodge City
Abilene
Ogallala
Cheyenne

17

Who was the Marsall for Dodge City who helped to maintain order?

Wyatt Earp

18

Who was the Marshal for Abilene?

James B Hickok

19

What did RRs do to the cattle hearding buisness?

made it prosper then destroyed it
brought sheepherders and homesteaders

20

Who invented the barbed wire fence and why?

Samuel Glidden
erased the open range days of the long cattle week

21

When was the blizzard that left cattle starving and freezing?

1886-1887

22

What was the first organization of cattle breeders?

Wyoming Stock Growers Association

23

What was the Homestead Act?

1862
free 160 acres in the west for:
living on it 5 years
improvement
paying a $30 registration fee

It allowed folks to get land after only 6 months residence for $1.25 an acre

24

What did the government do before the Homestead Act?

sold land for revenue

25

How many families went to live in the west

500.000

26

Why was the Homestead Act considered a hoax?

dry Great Plains, 160 acres was rarely enough for a family to earn a living and survive
families were often forced to give up their land early due to droughts, bad land, and lack of necessities

27

How many times did land end up in the hands of land grabbing promoters than in real farmers?

almost 10x

28

How would people cheat into keep the but not live on it?

They would say they had a 12x14, but it turned out to be 12x14 inches

29

What did RRs such as the Northern Pacific help develop?

agriculture west, where it proved to be fertile

30

Due to higher wheat prices resulting from crop failures around the world, where were people pushed to?

Behind the 100th meridian (magic 20in rainfll where it was difficult to gow crops)

31

Who was a geologist that warned successful farming could onlybe attained by massive irrigation?

John Wesley Powell

32

To couteract the lack of water due to a 6 year drought in 1880s, what technique did farmers develop?

dry farming or using shallow cultivation methods to plant and farm (over time it created a pulverized surface that contributed to the dust bowl)

33

What saved wheat in the US and grew all over the Great Plains?

Russian species of wheat that was tough and resistant to drought
Other plants were chosen in favor of corn too

34

Huge fereally financed irrigation projects caused what and what resolved it?

Great American Desert
dams tamed the Missouri ad Columbia Rivers helped water the land

35

Where experienced a population surge as many people moved to the frontier?

Great West

36

What states were mitted to the Union?

CO
ND
SD
MO
WA
ID
WY

37

When was Utah allowed into the Union?

1896

38

By the 20th century, what remained territories?

OK
NM
AZ

39

What happened when OK was made available by the US gaovernment to give away former NA land?

thousands of sooners jumped the boundary line and illegally went into OK, often forcing US troops to evict them

40

When was OK legally opened?

April 22, 1889

41

When did OK becoe the Sooner State?

1907

42

What happened for the first time in 1890 by the US census?

They announced that a frontier was no longer discernible

43

The closing of the frontier inspired what?

Turner Thesis?

44

What is the Turer THesis?

America needed a frontier

45

What was the first national park and why was it opened?

Yellowstone 1872
People finally realized tht land was not infinite and they were concerned about not having a frontier

46

What 2 other national parks followed?

Yosemite
Sequoia
1890

47

What was the frontier?

state of mind and a symbol of opportunity

48

What is the safety valve theory?

frontier was like a safety valve for folks who, when it became too crowded in their area, could simply pack up and leave, moving west

49

Why did only a few city dwellers move to the west?

didnt know how to farm
west increasingly became less and less of oppurtunity for farms but was still good for hard laborers and ranchers

50

Who was lured into the west for free acrage?

immigrant farmers
led to city employers raisign wages to keep workers in the cities

51

What cities did busted farmers and fortune seekers call home?

Chicago
San Fransico

52

Why is the trans-Mississippi west important?

Indians made their last stand
Anglo culture collided with Hispanic culture
America faced Asia

53

Why were farmers increasingly producing single cash crpps?

they could concentrte on their efforts
make profit
buy manufactured goods from mail in order companies

54

What are some examples of mail in order companies?

Sears
Aaron Montgomery Ward 1872

55

What were some new farming inventions and how did they impact the farming community?

steam engine that coul pull a plow
seeder
harrow
twine blinder
combined reaper threshing sped up harvesting and lowered the number of people needed to farm

56

Who did farmers blame for their losses rather than their own shortcomings?

banks and railroads

57

What did the mechanizaiton of agriculture lead to?

enormous farms
ex: Minnesota-ND and Central Valley of CA

58

Who described CA as a country of plantations and estates?

Henry Geoge

59

What was grown in CA?

vegetables and fruits by ill paid Mexican workers who made huge profits when sold to the east

60

In the 1880s, when world markets rebounded, produced more crops, and forced proces down, what happened to American farmers?

ruined

61

What was difficult in the deflation filled time during which there was simply ot enough money to go around to everyone?

Paying back debts

62

What is contraction?

less money in circulation

63

What was the fall of farmers in the late 1800s simular to?

King Cotton during the Civil War

64

What events made the late 1880s and early 1890s disasterous to farmers?

droughts
grasshopper plagued
searing heat

65

How did the city, state, and federal government added to the failure of farmers?

ridding them off by making them pay painful taxes when they could least afford it

66

What items contributed to the failure of farmers?

railroads (fixing freight prices)
middleman (taking huge cuts in profit)
various harvester
barbed fense
fertilizer trusts

67

What percent of the US pop was farmers even though they were disorganized in 1890?

50%

68

Western Indians offered strong resistance to white exansion through their effective use off...

Repeating rifles and horses

69

Intertribal warfare among Plains Indians increased in the late 19th century...

growing competition for the rapidaly dwindling hunting grounds

70

The federal government's attempt to confine Indians to certain areas through formal treaties was largely ineffective...

the nomatic Plains Indians larely rejected the idea of formal authority and defined territory

71

The warfare that led up to the Battle of Little Horn was set off by...

White intrusions after the discovery of gold in the sacred Black Hills

72

Indian reistance was finally subdued because...

the coming of the railroad led to the destruction of the buffalo and the Indians way of life

73

The federal government attempted to force Indiands away from their traditionl values and customs by...

Creating a network of children's boarding schools and white field matrons

74

Both the mining and cattle frontiers saw...

a movement from induvidual operations to large scale corporate businesses

75

The problem of developing agriculture in the arid West was solved most successfully through...

the use of irrigation from dammed western rivers

76

THe safety valve theory of the frontier holds that...

Unemployed city dwellers could move west and thus relieve lobor conflict in the east

77

What were 3 factors that made the trans MIssissippi west a unique part of the America frontier experience?

Large # of Indians, Hispanics, Asian American in the region
The scale and severity of enviormental challenges in the arid climate
The large role of the fedral government in economy and social development

78

By the 1880s, most western farmers faced hard times ebcause...

They were forced to sell grain at low prices in a depressed world market

79

What was among the political goals advocated by the Populist prty?

nationalizing the rr, telegraph, and telephone
Graduated income tax
Free and unlimited coinage of silver money

80

The US governemnt's response to the Pullmen strike aroused great anger from organizatied labor because...

it semed to represent government by injunction designed to destroy labor unions

81

William Jennings Bryan gained the democratic nomination in 1896 because he strongly advocated...

unlimitd coinage of silver in order to inflate currency

82

McKinley defeated Bryan primarily because he was able to win the support of...

eastern wage earners and city dwellers

83

What was the major northern plains indian nation that fought and eventually lost a bitter war against the US army 1876-77

Sioux

84

Southwestern Indian tribe led by Geronimo that carried out some of the last fighting against white conquest

Apaches

85

Generlly poor areas where vanquished Indiansa were eventualy confined under federal control

Reservations

86

Indian religious movement, originating out of the sacred Sun Dance that the federal goernment attemepted to stamp out in 1890

Ghost Dance

87

Federl law that atttemepted to dissolve tribal ladholding and establish Indians as individual farmers

Dawes Severalty Act

88

Huge silver and gold deposit that brought wealth and statehood of NV

Comstock Lode

89

General term for the herding of cattle from the grassy plains to the rr terminals of KS, NB, WY

Long Drive

90

Federl law that offered generous lad opportunities to poorer farmers but also provided the unscrupulous with opportunities for hoaxes and fraud

Homestead Act

91

Improved type of fencing that enabled farmers to enclose land on the treeless plains

Barbed Wire

92

Former Indian Territory where sooners tried to get the jump on boomers when it was opened for settlement in 1889

Oklahoma

93

Third political party tha emerged in the 1890s to express rural grievances and mount mahor attacts on the democarats and republicans

Populist

94

Popular pamphlet written by William Hope Harvey that portrayed pro silver arguments trumphing over the traditional views of bankers ad economics professors

Coin FInancial School

95

Bitter labor conflict in Chicago that brought federal intervention and the jailing of union leader Eugene V Debs

Pullman Strike

96

Spectacular convention speech by a young pro silver advocate that brought him the democratic presidentail nomination in 1896

cross of gold speech

97

Popular term for those who favored the status quo in metal money and opposed the pro silver Bryanies in 1896

Gold Bugs

98

What was the effect of THe encroachment of white settlement and the violaiton of treaties with indians?

Nearly constant warfare with plains indians from 1868 to 1890

99

What was the effect of Railroad building, disease, and the destruction fo the buffalo?

Decimated Indian populaitons and hastened their defeat at the hands of advancing whites

100

What was the effect of Reformers attempts to make NA conform to white ways?

Futher undermined NA traditional tribal culture and moral

101

What was the effect of the coming of big business mining and stock raising to the west?

Ended the romantic, colorful, era of the miners and the cattemen's frontier

102

What was the effect of Dry farming, barbed wire, and irrigation?

Made it possible to farm the dry, treeless areas of the Great Plains and the west

103

What was the effect of The passing of the frontier of 1890?

Created new psychological and economic problems for a naiton accustomed to a boundlessly open west

104

What was the effect of the growing economc specialization of westward farmers?

Made settlers vulnerable to vast industrial and market forces beyond their control

105

What was the effect of the rise of the populist party in the early 1890s?

Threatened the two party domination of American politics by the Republican and Democrats

106

What was the effect of sthe economic depression that began in 1893?

Caused widespread protests and stike like the one agianst the Pullman Company in Chicago

107

What was the effect of the return of prosperity after 1897 and new gold discoveries in Alaska, South Africa and else where?

Effectively ended the free silver agitation and the domination of the money question in American politics

108

WHat is the Grange?

founded by Oliver Kelley
improve the lives of isolated farmers through
social, educational, and fraternal activities

109

Who led the Pullman Strike?

Eugene Debs

110

What is the Gold Standard Act?

McKinley kigned in 1900
paper money must be bcked by gold
All silver coins were to be eliminated from circulaition