BL- Immunology of AIDS Flashcards Preview

BL/DD USMLE and Basics > BL- Immunology of AIDS > Flashcards

Flashcards in BL- Immunology of AIDS Deck (44):
1

First described in 1981, by 2004 it was the 5th
leading cause of death in the world, the 4th in
developing countries. So far, 36 million have died.

HIV/AIDS

2

HIV is a nontransforming retrovirus, that is, an RNA virus that carries no oncogene, and reproduces itself by copying its RNA into DNA by means of its own enzyme:______

reverse transcriptase

3

Retroviridae virus family

characterized by a long incubation period.

can deliver a lots of viral RNA into the DNA of the host cell

able to infect non-dividing cells, so they are one of the most efficient methods of a gene delivery vector.

ex: HIV

lentiviruses

4

SIDA

another name for HIV/AIDS

5

Where does HIV-1 come from/orginate?

originates from a Simenon virus

SIV(cpz)---> humans (HIV)

*also crossed into gorillas (~1920)

6

AIDS is caused by a virus called HIV-1, for:

Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

7

Gorilla SIV(gor) spread to

Humans. Created another HIV subtype
There have been 4 jumps

8

When a virus jumps species it becomes ______

More virulent

9

long-term survivors

homozygous for a 32-base pair deletion in the gene for a chemokine receptor, CCR5 (they were CCR5d32).

HIV resistant

10

CCR5 is an HIV _____

coreceptor

11

elite controllers

long-term survivors group- became infected but did not progress to AIDS. Two-thirds of them have the HLA-B57 allele.

12

HIV is

a non transforming retrovirus
slow acting

13

______ is an HIV coreceptor

CCR5

14

HLA-B57 allele.

elite controllers

15

non transforming virus means

no oncogene

16

SET Point

Variable viral titer concentration of HIV after immune system responds to HIV.

The virus does not completely go down like normal virus

17

T cell number cut off for AIDs

200

below 200 you will experience opportunistic infections

18

HIV viral structure

RNA
reverse trascriptase
bilayer lipid membrane (human)
gp120
gp41

19

The only good thing about HIV virus structure?

Bilayer lipid membrane from humans
Once this dries out, its dead
Doesn't survive well in environment

20

T helper cells have ___ on the surface

CD4

21

_____ from HIV binds the CD4 of Th

gp120

22

______ from HIV invades the CD4 Th

gp41

23

One Fate of an HIV infected cell is?

To die.
Being ripped apart by virus leaving with it's membrane at a high rate

24

Viral Resivoir

Tfh cells

25

Tfh cells

a distinct subset of CD4+ helper T (Th) cells that regulate the development of antigen specific B cell immunity.

26

If the cell does not die or become reservoir for HIV, then.....

There is latent infection

27

gp120 and gp41 stud the infected cell's membrane before

the virus buds

28

gp120 grabs the ___ adjacent cell and fuse them

Th

This lets the HIV virus pass internally
No exposure to antibody

29

Reverse transcriptas has ____ rates of mutation

very high

Mutates every cycle of replication, making it hard to fight

30

CCR5d32

Have resistance to HIV
Th get infected less
North European Caucasians have 11% allele frequency

31

Antibody to HIV peaks by ________

9-12 weeks

32

The most common test is for _______ to HIV

antibody

33

Reverse transcriptase (RT) is unique to retroviruses, using their RNA template to create DNA, so it’s a _________

good drug target.

34

Elite Controllers have

really well controlled HIV infection
Almost all HLAB57

35

HLAB57 is very good to

presenting HIV antigens/peptides
Make very good CTLs

36

HLAB57 develop ______ to a specific drug

Delayed hypersensitivity to abacavir (an HIV treatment)

37

HIV diagnosis

ELISA- many false positives
Followed up with western blot for + tests

PCR- very sensitive

38

______ is an approved DIY HIV test, available in stores

OraQuick

Tests IgG in the mouth (crivicular fluid)

39

NRTI

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

40

Anti retroviral therapy

3 drug cocktail:

2 competitive inhibitors
1 non-nucleoside (NNRTI)

41

HIV vaccine problem

Same problem as flu

May neutralize 1 HIV, but not many of the other viruses

42

bnAb

bnAbs have been found, they are rare, only found in a subgroup, take years to develop, and are extensively hypermutated; no method exists now for induction of these Abs by immunization

43

The CD4 binding site of gp120 usually _____

does not mutate (and still be HIV)

44

The CD4 binding site of gp120 can be selected for by _____

bnAbs

*may be useful for vaccine development