DD- COMMON SKIN CANCERS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DD- COMMON SKIN CANCERS Deck (44):
1

Occurs more frequently in fair skinned individuals in geographic areas with higher UV exposure
UV radiation is the most common cause of BCC
Also occur after ionizing radiation, arsenic or polycyclic hydrocarbon exposure

Non-melanoma Skin Cance

rRISK FACTORS

2

Hedgehog Alterations in BCC: The majority of BCCs have a loss of function of PTCH1 which normally acts to block:

smoothened (SMO) a transmembrane protein

3

Vismodegib, an inhibitor of _____, was approved for the treatment of advanced BCC

smoothened

4

Non-melanoma Skin Cancer

RISK FACTORS

Occurs more frequently in fair skinned individuals in geographic areas with higher UV exposure

UV radiation is the most common cause of BCC

Also occur after ionizing radiation, arsenic or polycyclic hydrocarbon exposure

5

The majority of BCCs have a loss of function of ______ which normally acts to block smoothened (SMO) a transmembrane protein

PTCH1

*Hedgehog Alterations in BCC

6

_______ an inhibitor of smoothened, was approved for the treatment of advanced BCC

Vismodegib,

7

Basal cell carcinomas are generally cured with

surgery

8

smoothened

a G protein-coupled receptor that is a component of the hedgehog signaling pathway .

9

______ Approved for metastatic or inoperable BCCs

Vismodegib
(a chemotherapy)

Not a first line therapy

10

the most common precancer

Approximately 65% of all squamous cell carcinomas and 36% of all BCCs arise in lesions that previously were diagnosed as ______

Actinic Keratosis
(Intraepidermal neoplasia)

11

Actinic Keratosis TREATMENT

Cryosurgery- Liquid nitrogen (boiling point of -196 C)
Topical Chemotherapy
Photodynamic therapy
Sun protection

12

Second most common cutaneous malignancy
Occur much more commonly in immunosuppressed pts, especially organ transplant pts

Squamous cell carcinoma

13

Squamous cell carcinoma risk factors

UV damage
thermal injury
radiation
HPV
burn scars (Marjolin’s ulcer)
chronic injury (i.e. EB)

14

Squamous cell carcinoma
SUBTYPES

SCC in situ (Bowen’s disease)
Keratoacanthoma
Invasive SCC

15

in situ

in epidermis

16

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the ___ are more aggressive

lip

17

Malignant Melanoma
ABCD Guidelines

A = Asymmetry
B = Border irregularity
C = Color variegation
D = Diameter greater than 6 mm
E = Evolution (or change)

18

Topical 5-fluoruracil
Topical Imiquimod
Cryosurgery
Electrodessication and Curettage
Excision
Mohs micrographic surgery
Radiation
these are all?

Non-melanoma Skin Cancer

TREATMENT

19

most common form of cancer for young adults 25-29 years old and the second most common form of cancer for young people 15-29 years old

Melanoma

20

Malignant Melanoma
ABCD Guidelines

A = Asymmetry
B = Border irregularity
C = Color variegation
D = Diameter greater than _______mm
E = Evolution (or change)

6 mm

21

FAMMM

Genetic
100% chance of melanoma

22

SPF stands for

Sun Protection Factor

23

Clarks Levels

I Epidermis
II Papillary Dermis
III Mid Dermis
IV Reticular Dermis
V Subcutaneous fat

24

Malignant Melanoma Clinical Variants

Superficial spreading
Nodular
Lentigo maligna melanoma
Acral lentiginous

25

Malignant Melanoma Treatment

Surgical excision

26

Endothelial malignancy triggered by HHV-8
Slowly progressive
Incidence 0.05 per 100,000 population in the USA
AIDS – Associated

Kaposi’s Sarcoma

27

Kaposi’s Sarcoma THERAPY

Radiation Therapy
Excision
Interferon alpha
Chemotherapy

28

Breslow Depth

Measurement in mm of tumor invasion
**Number one prognostic for melanoma

29

__________ often appear as flat, firm, pale areas or as small, raised, pink or red, translucent, shiny, waxy areas that may bleed after minor injury.

Basal cell carcinomas

30

Basal cell cancer begins in the lowest layer of the epidermis, called the:

basal cell layer

31

Basal cell carcinomas arise from pluripotential cells due to mutations in the

hedgehog pathway

32

BRAF mutation is in most

moles.

also in many melonams

33

Vemurafenib is a useful treatment in melenoma for pts with ______

BRAF mutation

34

_______ may appear as growing lumps, often with a rough surface, or as flat, reddish patches that grow slowly.

Squamous cell carcinoma

35

People do not often die of these cancers. About 1,000 to 2,000 people die of this

Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)

36

_______ accounts for about 3% of skin cancer cases but causes a large majority of skin cancer deaths

Melanoma

37

Melanoma may arise within a previously existing nevus or dysplastic nevus, but approximately 70% of the time, they arise:

de novo

38

The most important indicator of prognosis for all subtypes of melanoma is the ________, which is the maximal thickness of tumor invasion

Breslow depth

39

the ______, describes how far a melanoma has penetrated into the skin instead of actually measuring it

Clark level

40

SPF only reflects

UVB

41

SPF 15 means?

it takes 15 times longer to burn

42

One shot glass full of _____ should be used everyday

sunscreen, although tequila is nice too

43

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation damages _____. Most UV radiation comes from sunlight/tanning booths

DNA

44

Standard Treatment Options for Patients With Stage IV and Recurrent Melanoma

1. Immunotherapy:
2. Signal transduction inhibitors
3. Chemotherapy.
4. Palliative local therapy.