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BL/DD USMLE and Basics > RANDOMS > Flashcards

Flashcards in RANDOMS Deck (33):
1

VIRION

an entire virus particle, consisting of an outer protein shell called a capsid and an inner core of nucleic acid

2

FONDAPARINUX

Heparin type
Prevents blood clots
IV or SubQ

3

alpha granules (plts) releases

fibrinigon
factor 5
vWF
plt growth factor

4

Dense granules (plts) releases

ADP/ATP
Calcium
Seratonin

5

a specialized from of hyphal elements (root)

RHIZOIDS – rhizoids are a specialized from of hyphal elements that grow like roots from larger hyph

6

syncytium

a multinucleated cell that can result from multiple cell fusions of uninuclear cells

Happens when RSV fuses (F protein) with itself

7

The first members of the serpin superfamily to be extensively studied were the human plasma proteins _______

Antithrombin and Antitrypsin

8

What neurotransmitter does sweating?

ACh

9

Limits of immune survalence

Non random cancers
Nude mice rarely have rumors

10

The steps of immune editing

Elimination.
Equilibrium
Escape

11

CTLA-4 and PD1 are notable for?

Checkpoint inhibitors.
Downregute cytotoxic activity

12

Tumor Associated Antigen

Antigens not normally found on normal cells (possibly by over expression alone)

13

Tumor specific antigen

Caused by tumor mutation, making no two tumors exactly alike (if present)

14

Carcinoembrryonic Antigen

Found in colon cancer often
Oncofetal gene

15

Differentiation Antigens

Most frequently IDd TAA. OVER EXPRESSED TUMOR PROTEIN

Ex
Her 2.

16

Colon antigen

Expressed uniquely on malignant clone.

Ex:
Surface B cell markers

17

CTL Cells

CD8, sees MHC 1
Secret IFNgama--> attracts macs

18

Th1 cells

CD4 cell
Attracts M1s
Helps activate CTL

19

M2 and tumors

Tumors seem to be protected by M2

20

Natural killer cells

Large Lymphocyte
If MHC 1 decreases (like in tumors) then NKs increase

21

Do antibodies help in the fight against tumors?

Not so much.

22

A prolonged bleeding time indicates a disorder of: ________?

primary hemostasis, due to platelet dysfunction or thrombocytopenia.

23

Treats or prevents blood clots in patients with bleeding problems caused by another medicine called heparin.

Argatroban

24

a drug that reverses the anticoagulant effects of heparin by binding to it.

Protamine sulfate

25

stimulates release of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII from endothelial stores.It will temporarily increase levels of those factors 3 to 5 times.

Desmopressin (DDAVP)

26

Factor VIII concentrate if von Willebrand factor isn’t there for factor VIII to bind to, it will be ________ and won’t help at all.

rapidly degraded

27

key enzyme responsible for clot digestion

Plasmin

28

________ renders resistance to proteolysis by activated protein C (APC)..This then tips the balance of the coagulation system slightly in favor of increased thrombin generation/procoagulation

Factor V Leiden mutation

-leads to increased risk of thrombosis

29

released by the rupture of the plasma membrane, which destroys the cell and results in the secretion of the product into the lumen.

Holocrine

30

The sebaceous gland is an example of a ______ because its product of secretion (sebum) is released with remnants of dead cells

holocrine gland

31

Apoeccrine glands are primarily located where

Genital area

32

inked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection.

a neoplastic skin disease; it can be considered as an early stage or intraepidermal form of squamous cell carcinoma.

Bowen’s disease (squamous cell carcinoma in situ)

33

Trichophyton rubrum

presents with annular, scaly patch
is a dermatophytic fungus
most common cause of athlete's foot, fungal infection of nail, jock itch, and ringworm worldwide