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BL/DD USMLE and Basics > Random BL/DD Step 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Random BL/DD Step 1 Deck (72):
1

Keloid

scarring is excess production of scar tissue that extend beyond borders of the original wound.

It is characterized by excess type III collagen and commonly return after resection.

2

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

promotes angiogenesis and increases vascular permeability.

3

red blood cells with a “bullseye” target appearance

Target Cells

Target cells are associated with:
HbC disease
Asplenia
Liver disease
Thalassemia

Mnemonic: “HALT!” said the hunter to his target.

4

Coagulative necrosis Pathophysiology

Often due to interruption of the blood supply

5

Three main causes of THrombocytopenia

Decreased Marrow Production
Spleen Sequestration
Inc destruction

6

surface proteins on endothelial cells and leukocytes mediate rolling

selectines

7

C-reactive protein

enhances phagocytosis
can be measured as a sign of ongoing inflamation

8

Ferritin

Binds and sequesters iron

9

Hepcidin

Inhibits release of storage iron

10

Describe the primary function of dendritic cells

Dendritic cells are antigen-sampling and -presenting cells.

MHC2

11

Degmacytes (or "bite cells")

red cells formed as a result of macrophage-mediated removal of hemoglobin.

12

Sickle Cell Trait

Heterozygotes
Hb AS
Do not show symptoms

13

Most Reactive O2 radical

OH radical

14

Opsonization

facilitates phagocytosis by tagging specific molecules for phagocytosis.

most important opsonins are IgG and C3b

15

“helmet cells”

red cell fragments that appear as half-discs with 2-3 pointed extremities. They form when red cells are sieved by fibrin strands in damaged blood vessels.

16

Liquefactive necrosis

characterized by enzymatic liquefaction of necrotic tissue

17

During acute inflammation, which cell type dominates 1-2 days following neutrophil infiltration?

Following neutrophils (1-2 days later), macrophages manage the next step of the inflammatory process

18

4 histologic findings consistent with apoptosis.

~Cell shrinkage
~Chromatin condensation (pyknosis)
~DNA fragmentation (karyorrhexis)
~Membrane blebbing

19

Aplastic anemia is characterized by

diminished or absent hematopoietic precursors in the bone marrow, usually as a result of injury to the pluripotent stem cell.

disorder encompasses pancytopenia

20

Integrins

Mediate tight leukocyte binding

21

Basophilic stippling conditions?

~Thalassemias
~Anemia of chronic disease
~Lead poisoning
~Alcohol abuse

22

All blood cells arise from

Hematopoietic stem cell

23

Hematopoiesis

Creation of blood

24

Hemolysis

Premature RBC destruction

25

Erythropoietin

Hormone made by the kidney.
Stimulates marrow to produce RBCs

26

Where is folate absorbed?

Jejunum

27

Where is vB12 absorbed

Ilium

28

Methymalonic Acid levels

Increased in b12 def
Normal in folate deficiency

29

TLR recognizes

PAMPS
part of innate immunity

30

PAMPS are on

Foreign invaders

31

CD14

TLR on MACs
Can see lipopolysachs on GN bacteria

32

NF KB

Transcription factor

"On switch" for acute inflammation response

Leads to production of immune mediators

33

Arachidonic Acid

COX to PG pathway

and Lipooxygenase pathway

34

PGI2, PGD, PGE2 mediate

Vasodilation and increased vascular perm

35

PGE2 mediates

Fever and pain

(Cox path)

36

Anemia of chronic disease

Fe is locked in macs
Lower heme production
Lower hemoglobin
leads to micro cystic anemia

37

Sideroblastic anemia

Lowered proto production
Lowered heme production
Micro cystic anemia

38

Thalsemia leading to micro cystic anemia

Decreased globin chain
Decreased hemoglobin
Decreased RBC size

39

Most common form of anemia

Iron Deficiency anemia

40

Iron is absorbed where?

Duodenum

41

Entercyte

Transports iron into the blood via ferroportin

42

Transferrin

Transports iron and delivers it to liver and bone marrow

43

Which chromosome contains the alpha globin genes?

Chromosome 16

44

1 alpha globin gene deletion

pt will be asymptomatic

45

α-thalassemia trait

If 2 alleles are deleted
Mild anemia

46

If 3 alpha globin alleles are deleted

microcytic, hypochromic anemia
β-globin chains form tetramers (HbH)

47

β-globin chains form tetramers (HbH)

forms when three alpha globins are deleted

48

myeloid to erythroid ratio (M:E)

ratio of myeloid precursor cells to erythrocyte precursor cells

varies from 2:1 to 4:1.
increased ratio is seen in myelogenous leukemia

49

Ferritin

stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion

50

Hemosiderin

Iron storage molecule
always found within cells

51

Myoglobin

iron- and oxygen-binding protein
found in the muscle tissue
Myoglobin is only found in the bloodstream after muscle injury

52

Transferrin

Iron transporter

53

Total iron binding capacity

laboratory test that measures the blood's capacity to bind iron with transferrin

54

Intrinsic factor

a protein essential for subsequent absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum.

55

Pernicious anemia

megoblastic anemia- Autoimmune

loss of gastric parietal cells, responsible for secretion of intrinsic factor, essential for absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum.

56

Iron deficiency Anemia
Lab Values

Low Fe serum
Normal TIBC
Low Transferrin Sat
Low ferritin

57

Hereditary spherocytosis

Hemoytic anemia
Extra-vascular
abnormal erythrocytes are sphere-shaped

58

DAT test
Direct antigen test

Looks for complement and IgG on RBC
IgG positive warm hemeyoliticanemia

59

Warm DAT
Warm AIH

manifests in warm blood
IgG is able to bind at any time

Splenectomy might be helpful

60

Cold DAT
Cold AIH

IgM is binding, precipitates in cold binding complement

61

Warm AIHA treatment

Glucocorticoid
Splenectomy
Antibody to the B Cells

62

Which bacteria has lipopolysaccharide and an outer membrane?

Gram negative

63

Which bacteria has teichoic acid?

Gram positive

64

CD34 marker

Generic marker of immaturity

65

B cell lineage markers

CD19
CD22

66

Marker of T cell lineage

CD3
CD7

67

Tdt cell markers

Lymphoblast Marker

68

APL
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML, APL) subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

Rx, and path?

fuses retonic acid receptor.

Re-tonic acid and arsenic salts treat this

Can give rise to DIC

"APPLE TONIC"

69

ALL bad prognosis

Infants under 1
People over 10
T-lymphopblast hyperploidy
Slow response to rx

70

Myleoblast characteristic

aurer rods
rods common in APL

71

Why do bacterial spores form?

When there are just enough nutrients present

72

When bacterial spores have enough nutrients, what process occures?

They convert back to vegatative cells through germination