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Flashcards in Bones, Joints, and Soft Tissue Deck (77)
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1

___ bone cell involved in bone remodeling by coordinating osteoblast and osteocyte activity in response to different stimuli

osteocyte

2

most common skeletal dysplasia

achondroplasia

3

most common lethal form of dwarfism

thantophoric dysplasia

4

most common inherited disorder of connective tissue

osteogenesis imperfecta

5

most lethal type of osteogenesis imperfecta

Type II (usually autosomal recessive)

6

Albers-Schonberg disease is also known as

Osteopetrosus

7

[diagnose]

absent medullary canal, erlenmeyer flask deformity, renal tubular acidosis, diffuse symmetric skeletal sclerosis

osteopetrosis

8

decreased bone mass is called

osteopenia

9

severe osteopenia is called

osteoporosis

10

[diagnose: osteopenia]

cancellous part of the vertebral bodies have a thin trabecular plates and vertebral collapse

postmenopausal osteopenia

11

[diagnose: osteopenia]

cortical part is affected, widened haversian system

if severe, cancellous like appearance

senile osteopenia

12

osteoporosis in menopause is associated with increased ____ and decreased ___ activities

Decreased serum estrogen,

Increased IL1, IL6, TNF, RANK, RANKL, Osteoclast activity

13

osteoporosis in aging is associated with decreased ___

decreased

1. replicative activity of osteoprogenitor cells
2. osteoblast activity
3. matrix-bound growth factor activity
4. physical activity

14

[diagnose]

elderly, axial skeleton, proximal femur, bone pain due to microfacture

histo: increased but disordered and structurally unsound bone mass

"jigsaw puzzle"

can cause high output failure

paget disease

Osteitis deformans

15

[diagnose]

decreased mineral content of bone due to abnormal mineralization

rickets and osteomalacia

16

__
rail-road track like appreance

dissecting osteitis

17

[diagnose: renal ostodystrophy]

decrease BMP-7
Acidosis
increased RANKL

osteopenia

18

[diagnose: renal ostodystrophy]

Acidosis
decreased 1,25 OH2 vitamin D
Decreased calcium
increased PO4
hyperparathyroidism

osteomalacia

19

___ increases PO4, decreases klotho

FGF-23

20

procallus bone is formed ___ week post injury

1 week

21

___ disease

avascular necrosis of ossification centers in children

legg-calve-perthes disease

22

most common etiologic agent in osteomyelitis

Pyogenic Osteomyelitis

23

most common etiologic agent in osteomyelitis in IV drug user

E. coli
pseudomonas
klebsiella

24

most common etiologic agent in osteomyelitis in neonates

H. influenza
GBS

25

most common etiologic agent in osteomyelitis in patients with sickle cel disease

salmonella

26

most common location of osteomyelitis in neonates

metaphyses and epiphyses

27

most common location of osteomyelitis in children

metaphyseal

28

most common location of osteomyelitis in adults

epiphyses and subchondral region

29

___ refers to small intraosseous abscess in osteomyelitis

Brodie abscess

30

___ refers to newly developed sleeve of bone around dead bone in osteomyelitis

involucrum

31

___ refers to dead bone in osteomyelitis

sequestrum

32

[diagnosis]

subperiosteal draining sinus, sequestrum, involucrum, brodie abscess

osteomyelitis

33

location of periosteal bone deposition in saber shin

anterior and medial surface of tibia

34

most common primary tumors excluding hematologic is

osteosarcoma

35

[diagnosis]

bone-forming, benign
<2cm
appendicular skeleton (common in femur and tibia)
marked reactive bone formation, relieved by NSAIDs

haphazardly interconnecting trabeculae of woven bone WITH osteoblastic rimming, no atypia

Osteoid sarcoma

36

[diagnosis]

bone-forming, benign
>2cm
common in axial skeleton (usually in vertebral column, less pronounced reactive bone formation, not relieved by NSAIDs

haphazardly interconnecting trabeculae of woven bone WITH osteoblastic rimming, no atypia

osteoblastoma

37

[diagnosis]

<20 years old, then older adults (bimodal)
bone pain, mass
metaphysis of long bone

periosteal lifting (codman triangle), infiltrative borders (sunburst appearance), lytic and blastic leasion

histo: lace-like pattern

osteosarcoma

38

[diagnosis]

adolescent
bone pain, mass
metaphysis of long bone

periosteal lifting (codman triangle), infiltrative borders (sunburst appearance), lytic and blastic leasion

histo: lace-like pattern

abundant malignant cartilage

chondroblastic osteosarcoma

39

[diagnosis]

late adolescent/early adulthood, metaphysis of long bone

hyaline cartilage (hyaline cap); covered peripherally by perichondrium; has underlying bone and marrow

osteochondroma

40

[diagnosis]

20-50 years old
solitary lesion in metaphysis of hand and foot bones

cytologically benign chondrocytes

chondroma

41

most common intraosseus cartilage tumor

enchondroma

42

___ syndrome

Chondroma + spindle cell hemangioma

Ollier and Maffucci syndrome

43

second most common malignant matrix-producing tumor of the bone

chondrosarcoma

44

[diagnosis]

>40 year old, axial skeleton involved, anaplastic chondrocytes with varying cellularity, mitosis and atypia

chrondrosarcoma

45

second most common group of bone sarcoma in children

ewing sarcoma

46

t(11;22) fusion gene

ewing sarocma

47

[diagnosis]

child, painful enlarging mass with systemic symptoms

diaphysis of ling bone, flat bone of pelvis; onion skin-like deposition of reactive bone

ewing sarcoma

48

[diagnosis]

homer-wright rosettes, small, round blue cells in scant fibrous stroma

ewing sarcoma

49

[diagnosis]

20-40 years old,
solitary
seen in the epiphyses of long bones around the knee

histo: mononuclear cells with osteoclast-like giant cells

HIGH LEVELS OF RANKL activity

Giant cell tumor (osteoclastoma)

50

[diagnosis]

curvilinear trabeculae of woven bone without osteoblastic rimming

"chinese character" appearance of bony trabecuale

Fibrous dysplasia

51

___- syndrome

Fibrous dysplasia
Polyostotic FD
Cafe-au lait spots
precoccious puberty

McCune-Albright Syndrome

52

most common skeletal malignancy

metastasis

53

most common CA that metastasize to the bone in adults

prostate, breast, kidney, lung

54

most common CA that metastasize to the bone in children

neuroblastoma, wilms tumor, osteosarcoma, ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma

55

blastic form of bone metastasis is seen in ___

prostate CA

56

kidney, lung, GIT, and melanoma can form ___ type of bone lesion once it metastasize

lytic form

57

most common form of arthritis

osteoarthritis

58

[diagnosis]

proliferation of chrondrocytes, joint mice, eburnation (ivory-like), osteophytes

Osteoarthritis

59

[diagnosis]

Bouchard nodes, Heberden nodes, 1st CMCJ, 1st MTPJ are affected

joint deformity without fusion

osteoarthritis

60

Bouchard nodes refer to what joint

PIP

61

Heberden nodes refer to what joint

DIP

62

Genetic component of RA

HLA-DRB1

63

Central cytokine in pathogenesis of RA

TNF

64

pannus is the site of ___ activity

osteoclast

65

[diagnose]

synovial cell hyperplasia, dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, angiogenesis, fibropurulent exudates,

osseous ankylosis

RA

66

cause of pseudogout

calcium pyrophosphate

67

cut off value for hyperuricemia

>6.8 mg/dL

68

[diagnosis]

needle shaped, negatively bifringent

gout

monosodium urate

69

[diagnosis]

rhomboid-shaped, positively birefringent

calcium pyrophosphate

pseudogout

70

pathognomonic hallmark of gout

tophi in various sites

71

most common soft tissue tumor of adulthood

lipoma

72

lipoma in the deep soft tissue and retroperitoneum is ___ (malignant/benign)

can be malignant

73

most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence

embryonal

74

___ is the immunostain for rhabdomyoblastic differentiation

myogenin

75

[diagnosis]

eosinophilic, tadpole cells, numerous filaments

rhabdomyoblast

rhabdomyosarcoma

76

most common neoplasm in women

leiomyomas

77

[diagnosis]

seen in deep tissues of extremities and retroperitoneum

eosinophilic spindle cells with atypia; prominent necrosis and frequent mitosis

SMA stain used differentiate

Leiomyosarcoma