Liver and Gallbladder Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Liver and Gallbladder > Flashcards

Flashcards in Liver and Gallbladder Deck (66)
Loading flashcards...
1

reversible liver injury

steatosis and cholestasis

2

irreversible liver injury

necrosis and apoptosis

3

vitamin A storage cells in the liver

hepatic stellate cells

4

markers of hepatocyte integrity

AST, ALT, LDH

5

markers of hepatocyte synthetic function

albumin, PT, aPTT, ammonia

6

[diagnosis]
jaundice, cholestasis, hepatic encephalopathy, asterixis, occurring within 26 weeks post initial insult

acute liver injury

7

most common drug that cause acute liver failure

acetaminophen

8

Acute liver failure causes
ABCDEF

A hepatitis, acetaminophen
B hepatitis
C hepatitis, cryptogenic
D hepatitis, drugs/toxins
E hepatitis
F atty liver

9

hepatitis virus that can cause chronic hep infection

HBV, HCV

10

[diagnosis]
jaundice with pruritus,
palmar erythema, spider angiomas, hypogonadism, gynecomastia, HPO axis abnormalities, portal HPN

chronic lover disease

11

[veins involved]

Portocaval anastomoses causing esophageal varices

esophageal branch of the left gastric vein and azygous vein

12

[veins involved]

Portocaval anastomoses causing hemorrhoids

superior, middle, and inferior rectal veins

13

[veins involved]

Portocaval anastomoses causing caput medusae

periumbilical veins and abdominal wall collaterals

14

hallmark of chronic viral hepatitis

portal inflammation

15

[diagnosis: hepatitis]

ground glass appearance of hepatocytes.

hepatitis b

16

[diagnosis: hepatitis]

lymphoid follicles, bile duct injury and steatosis (fatty change)

hepatitis c

17

[diagnosis: acute vs chronic]

ballooning degerenration, apoptosis, macrophages aggregates, scan mononuclear infiltrate

acute hepatitis

18

[diagnosis: acute vs chronic]
dense mononuclear necrosis, ground glass cells (Hep B) or fatty change (hep C), interface hepatitis, ductular reaction, bridging fibrosis

chronic hepatits

19

this refers to stem cell activation of hepatocyte during regeneration

ductular reaction

20

[diagnosis: autoimmune hepatitis]

female, middle aged, ANA, AntiSMA, anti-SLA/LP, AMA

more favorable prognosis

Type 1 Autoimmune Hepatitis

21

[diagnosis: autoimmune hepatitis

female, children to teenagers, anti LKM, CYP2D6 antibodies, anti ACL1

less favorable prognosis

Type 2 autoimmune hepatitis

22

anesthetic drug that causes dose-dependent hepatitis

halothane

23

this drug causes cholestasis leading to hepatitis

chlorpromazine

24

___ amount of alcohol that is associated with development of ALD

80g/day

25

[form of alcoholic liver disease]

lipid droplets in hepatocytes, fatty changes, perivenular fibrosis

hepatocellular steatosis

26

[form of alcoholic liver disease]

hepatocyte swelling, mallory denk bodies, neutrophilic infiltration

alcoholic steatosis

27

[form of alcoholic liver disease]

fibrosis at central vein, perisinusoidal, chicken-wire fence pattern

steatofibrosis

28

[alcoholic SH vs non-alcoholic SH]

PMN predominant, fibrosis prominent around central vein, mallory denk bodies are more

Alcoholic steatohepatitis

29

alcoholic SH vs non-alcoholic SH]

mononuclear infiltrates, fibrosis prominent around portal vein, less mallory denk bodies

Non-alcoholic SH

30

[diagnosis]

1. micronodular cirrhosis
2. Diabetes mellitus
3. abnormal skin pigmentation

hemochromatosis

31

[diagnosis]

ATPB mutation (Ch13)

wilson disease

32

deposition of copper in the corneal limbus

keyser-fleisher ring

33

most commonly diagnosed inherited hepatic disorder in infants and children

alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency

34

[diagnosis]

accumulation of misfolded proteins in hepatocytes, PAS positive, diastase-resistant hyaline globules

alpha 1 anti trypsin deficiency

35

Inherited disorder that cause indirect hyperbilirubinemia

crigler-najjr I and II
Gilbert syndrome

36

Inherited disorder that cause conjugated hyperbilirubinemia

Dubin-johnson
Rotor syndrome

37

most common cause if large bile duct obstruction

gallstones in adult, biliary atresia in children

38

[diagnosis]

1. fever
2. jaunduce
3. RUQ pain

ascending cholangitis

39

treatment of choice of extrahepatic biliary atresia

kasai procedure

40

[diagnosis: autoimmune cholangitis]

female, 30-70 years old, progressive, AMA(+)

lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with or without granulomas (Florid duct lesion)

primary biliary cirrhosis

41

[diagnosis: autoimmune cholangiopathies]

30 years old, usually males, associated with IBD, pancreatitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis

stricture and beading of large bile ducts

onion skin fibrosis, beading of contrast medium

primary sclerosing cholangitis

42

[diagnosis]

1. pain
2. jaundice
3. abdominal mask

choledocal cyst

43

___ disease where there is dilatation of intrahepatic bile duct

caroli disease

44

___ disease where there is dilatation of intrahepatic bile duct

caroli disease

45

[diagnosis]

obstruction >/ 2 hepatic veins
liver enlargement, pain, ascites
hypercoaguable state
hemorrhagic centrilobular necrosis

budd chiari syndrome

46

nutmeg liver is associated with what type of HF

left-sided HF

47

most common benign tumor in the liver

cavernous hemangioma

48

most common liver tumor of early childhood

hepatoblastoma

49

most common tumor involving liver

metastasis

50

most common primary malignant tumor of the liver

hepatocellular CA

51

second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver

cholangiocarcinoma

52

[diagnosis]

well-demarcated, poorly encapsulated with central scar that contains blood vessels, usually arterial

hypervascular with dense capillary blush on angiography

focal nodular hyperplasia

53

[diagnosis: liver]

incidental mass, hypovascular on angiography, no uptake on liver scan, assciated with OCP use

hepatocellular adenoma

54

tumor marker for hepatocellular CA

alpha fetoprotein

55

most common metastatic site of HCCA

lung

56

most common location of cholangiocarcinoma

perihilar (klatskin)

57

most common congenital anomaly of gallbladder

folded fundus or phrygian cap

58

most common biliary tract disease

cholelithiases

59

[diagnosis: GB stone]

pale yellow, round to ovoid, finely granular, hard

radiolucent but can be radiopaque if with sufficient CaCO3

cholesterol stone

60

[diagnosis: GB stone]

spiculated, molded surface

sterile, radiopaque

black pigment

61

[diagnosis: GB stone]

spiculated, molded surface, with Ca salts of fatty acids

infected, radiolucent

brown pigment

62

[diagnosis: chronic cholecystitis]

foamy macrophages

xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis

63

[diagnosis: chronic cholecystitis]

extensive dystrophic calcification, increased risk for CA

porcelain GB

64

[diagnosis: chronic cholecystitis]

atrophic, dilated with clear secretions

hydrops

65

most important risk factor for GB CA

gallstone

66

[diagnosis]

RUQ pain, anorexia, elevated ALP

GB CA