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Flashcards in Lung and Pleura Deck (60)
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1

[diagnosis]

abrupt onset of significant hypoxemia and bilateral infiltrates without heart failure

acute lung injury

2

type II pneumocyte necrosis can lead to hypoxemia due to decrease in

surfactant

3

[diagnosis: type of lung disease]

lung volume is increased
FEV1 severely decreased
FVC decreased
FEV1/FVC = <0.7

obstructive lung disease

4

[diagnosis: type of lung disease]

lung volume decreased
FEV1 decreased
FVC severely decreased
FEV1/FVC = normal to increased

restrictive lung disease

5

[diagnosis: type of lung disease]

Associated conditions are bronchial asthma, COPD, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis

obstructive lung disease

6

[diagnosis: type of lung disease]

associated conditions include pulmonary fibrosing disease, chest wall disorders

restrictive lung disease

7

[diagnosis]

Irreversible destruction fo air spaces distal to terminal bronchiole, leading to their enlargement, without obvious fibrosis

abnormally large alveoli separated by thin septa with only focal centriacinar fibrosis

emphysema

8

[diagnosis]

cough with sputum production for at least 3 months at least 2 consecutive years without identifiable cause

chronic bronchitis

9

[type of emphysema]
most common, associated with smoking

centriacinar

10

[type of emphysema]

less common, from respiratory bronchiole to alveoli, associated with alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency

panacinar

11

type on emphysema associated with spontaneous pneumothorax

distal acinar ir paraseptal

12

[diagnosis: type of COPD]

common in 40-45 y/o, infection is common, increased airway resistance, prominent vessels and enlarged heart, cor pulmonary is common

predominant bronchtis

13

[diagnosis: type of COPD]
common among 50-75 years old, occasional infection, not associated with cor pulmonale, airway resistance is increased, noted hyperinflation of lungs and small heart

predominant emphysema

14

[diagnosis]

chronic disorder of conducting airways, immunologic reaction, episodic bronchoconstriction due to increased airway sensitivity, inflammation of bronchial walls

Bronchial asthma

15

In bronchial asthma, the first exposure is associated with ___ response

TH2 response, IgE production and eosinophil recruitment

16

Subsequent exposure in bronchial asthma is associated with

mast cell degranulation

17

[diagnosis]
occlusion of bronchi and bronchioles by thick tenacious mucous plug; presence of curshmann spirals and charcot-leyden crystals

status asthmaticus

18

[diagnosis]

destruction of smooth muscle and elastic tissue; permanent dilation of bronchi and bronchioles

bronchiectasis

19

[diagnosis]

progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

20

[diagnosis]

patchy interstitial fibrosis with varying age; initially starts with fibroplastic focus later turn to honeycomb fibrosis

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

21

most common pneumoconiosis in the world

silicosis

22

[diagnosis; pneumoconiosis]

eggshell calcifications of LN, fine nodularities in the upper lung zone; increased susceptibility to tuberculosis

silicosis

23

most common malignancy associated with asbestosis

lung CA

24

[diagnosis]

non-caseating granuloma with giant cell; presence of schaumann bodies (concretions of Ca and proteins) and asteroid bodies (stellate inclusions in giant cells)

sarcoidosis

25

cut-off value for pulmonary hypertension

mean PA pressure >/25

26

[diagnosis]

BMPR2 LOF mutation; medial hypertrophy of the pulmonary muscular and elastic arteries, pulmonary arterial atherosclerosis, RVH

pulmonary hypertension

27

location of the cough center (specific location in the brainstem)

nucleus tractus solitarius

28

[adventitious breath sound]

discontinuous, intermittent, non-musical, brief

like dots in time

crackles or rales

29

[adventitious breath sounds]

continuous, >/ 250msec, musical, prolonged, like dashes in time; high pitch with hissing and shrill quality

wheeze

30

[adventitious breath sounds]

continuous, >/ 250msec, musical, prolonged, like dashes in time; low pitch, snoring quality

rhonchi

31

[diagnosis]

patchy consolidation, consolidated areas of acute suppurative inflammation, neutrophil-rich exudate that fills the ariways

bronchpneumonia

32

[stage of pneumonia]

red, heavy boggy, few neutrophils, numerous bacteria

congestion

33

[stage of pneumonia]

red, firm, airless, numerous neutrophils, RBCs and fibrin

red hepatization

34

[stage of pneumonia]

grayish brown; RBCs disintegrate, fibrinosuppurative exudate

gray hepatization

35

[stage of pneumonia]

Resorption of exudates or organization (fibrosis); ingestion by macrophages

resolution

36

[type of pneumonia]

mononuclear infiltrates (lymphocytes, monocytes, plasma cell)

viral pneumonia

37

[type of pneumonia]

predominance of neutrophil, intra-alveolar inflammation

bacterial pneumonia

38

suppurative destruction of the lung parenchyma with central area of cavitation

lung abscess

39

[diagnosis: PICH]

CMV, pneumocystis jirovicii, drug reaction cause ___ infiltrates

diffuse

40

[diagnosis: PICH]
G(-) bacteria, S. aureus, aspergillus, candida, malignancy cause ___ infiltrates

focal

41

[type of pneumonia: chronic or acute]

localized lesion without LN involvement

chronic

42

[lung CA]

most common, seen in never smokers and females, peripheral location

adenocarcinoma

43

[lung CA]

glandular differentiation with mucin production

adenocarcinoma

44

[lung CA]

second most common, common in males, central/hilar location

squamous cell CA

45

[lung CA]

causes paraneoplastic syndrome: hypercalcemia due to PTHrP

squamous cell

46

[lung CA]

keratinization (pearls or dyskeratotic cells), intercellular bridges

squamous cell CA

47

[lung CA]

third most common, highest association with smoking, located either central/hilar/peripheral

small cell CA

48

[lung CA]

salt and paper chromatin, necrosis, basophilic staining of vessel walls

small cell CA

49

[lung CA]

causes paraneoplastic syndrome: SIADH and Cushing syndrome

small cell CA

50

[lung CA]

no squamous or glandular differentiation, negative IHC stain for adenoCA and SCCA, large pleomorphic cell

large cell CA

51

[paraneoplastic syndrome]

enophthalmos, ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis, lung tumor on the superior sulcus

horner syndrome (pancoast tumor)

52

[paraneoplastic syndrome]

Autoantibodies agains neuronal calcium channel

lambert eaton myasthenic syndrome

53

[diagnosis]

intraluminal polypoid mass seen mostly on mainstem bronchi, collar button lesion; rosette-like arrangement of neoplastic cells; rare mitotic activity; regular cells

carcinoid

54

[diagnosis]

diarrhea, flushing, cyanosis

carcinoid syndrome

55

primary tumor that is notorious in producing massive hemorrhagic pleural effusion

mesothelioma

56

[diagnosis: pneumothorax]

rupture of alveoli in pulmonary disease

spontaneous

57

[diagnosis: pneumothorax]

young people, subpleural blebs, self limiting, recurrent attacks common

spontaneous idiopathic

58

[diagnosis: pneumothorax]

due to perforating injury to the chest wall

traumatic

59

[diagnosis: pneumothorax]

sufficient to cause circulatory compression to mediastinal structures

tension

60

[diagnosis: lung primary CA]

chest pain, dyspnea, recurrent pleural effusion

thick layer of soft, gelatinous, grayish pink tumor tissue enclosing affected ling

malignant mesothelioma