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Flashcards in Central Nervous System Deck (119)
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1

[response to injury: determine the cell]

shrinkage of soma
Pynosis
Absence of nucleolus
Intense eosinophilia

acute res

2

[response to injury: determine the cell]

hyperplasia
hypertrophy
accumulation of GFAP

astrocyte

3

[response to injury: determine the cell]

proliferation

microglia

4

the most important histopathologic finding that indicates CNS injury

gliosis

5

[type of cerebral edema]

generalized hypoxic-ischemic injury

cytotoxic or vasogenic

6

[type of cerebral edema]

localized: adjacent to inflammation and neoplasm

vasogenic

7

[type of cerebral edema]

hydrocephalus

interstitial

8

[type of hydrocephalus]

localized: limited to upstream obstruction

non-communicating

9

[type of hydrocephalus]

ventricular system that communicates with subarachnoid space

communicating

10

[type of hydrocephalus]

increased CSF as compensation to decreased parenchymal mass;
no ventricular dilation

hydrocephalus ex vacuo

11

[type of herniation]

herniate through the falx cerebri

subfalcine

12

[type of herniation]
herniate across tentorium cerebelli

transtentorial

13

[type of herniation]

herniation of cingulate gyrus

subfalcine

14

subfalcine herniation compresses this artery

anterior cerebral artery

15

[type of herniation]

herniation of the medial aspect of the temporal lobe

transtentorial

16

Transtentorial herniation can compress this part of the brain

CN III
contralateral cerebral peduncle

17

[type of herniation]

pupillary dilation
hemiparesis ipsilateral to the lesion

transtentorial

18

[type of herniation]

herniation through the foramen magnum

tonsillar

19

[type of herniation]

herniation of cerebellar tonsils

tonsillar

20

tonsillar herniation can lead to compression of this structure

brainstem

21

[neural tube defect]

extension of the spinal cord and meninges through a defect in vertebral column

myelomeningocele

22

[neural tube defect]

extension of the meninges through a defect in the vertebra

meningocele

23

[neural tube defect]

diverticulum of a malformed brain tissue through a defect in the cranium

usually in the posterior fossa but can occur across the cribiform plate in anterior fossa

encephalocele

24

[neural tube defect]

failure of the closure of the anterior neural tube

anencephaly

25

[neural tube defect]

skin dimpling, a patch, a hair patch over the defect

spina bifida occulta

26

[posterior fossa anomalies]

enlarged posterior fossa
hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis

cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle

Dandy-walker malformation

27

[posterior fossa anomalies]

Small posterior fossa with mishapen cerebellar tonsils

Non-communicating hydrocephalus (due to aqueductal stenosis)

Lumbar myelomeningocele

Arnold-Chiari Malformation

Chiari II

28

[posterior fossa anomalies]

low-lying cerebellar tonsils
clincally silent or hydrocephalus

Lumbar myelomeningocele

Arnold-Chiari Malformation

Chiari II

29

[perinatal injury]

nonprogressive neurologic motor deficits (dystonia, spasticity, ataxia/athetosis, paresis) occurring during perinatal and prenatal periods

cerebral palsy

30

[perinatal injury]

increased risk in preterm infants, most often near developing thalamus and caudate; can lead to hyrdocephalus

intraprenchymal hemorrhage