Peripheral Nervous System and Skeletal Muscle Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Peripheral Nervous System and Skeletal Muscle Deck (31)
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1

structures affected in demyelinating neuropathy

schwann cells and myelin sheath

2

mononeuritis multiplex pattern of involvement can lead to ___ distribution of lesion

several nerves, asymmetric

3

most common chronic acquired peripheral neuropathy

chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

4

most common cause of peripheral neuropathy

DM

5

one of the most common viral infections of PNS

VZV

6

most common inherited peripheral neuropathy

charcot-marie tooth (CMT) disease

7

[diagnosis]

symmetric ascending demyelinating polyradiculoneurpathy

GBS

8

[diagnosis]

associated with camplylobacter jejuni, mycoplasma pneumoniae, CMV, EBV, prior vaccination

GBS

9

[diagnosis]

CSF finding: albuminocytologic dissociateion, little pleocytosis, increased protein

Histology: lymphoplasmacytic perivenular and endoneural infiltrate

Demyelination: segmental (most prominent lesion); axonal damage if severe

GBS

10

most common form of distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy; axonal neuropathy

diabetic neuropathy

11

[diagnosis]

peroneal muscle atrophy (high arch and claw toe)

progressive, distal sensorimotor neuropathy

charcot-marie-tooth disease

12

[diagnosis]

no weakness with exertion (response increases with repetitive exertion) affecting extremities, presynaptic Ca channel is affected resulting to blocked Ach release

associated with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung

lambert eaton myasthenic syndrome

13

myasthenic syndrome associated with Type II antibody-mediated hypersensitivitity

MG, LEMS

14

[diagnosis]

fatigable weakness with exertion, postsynaptic Ach receptor, muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase

diplopia, ptosis, more focal involvement

MG

15

[diagnosis]

juvenile

myalgia progressing to proximal weakness then to distal weakness

with heliotrope rash, gottron papules

mononuclear infiltrate in the perimysial, perivascular

atrophy: perifascicular atrophy

dermatomyositis

16

[diagnosis]

usually seen among adults

myalgia progressing to proximal weakness then to distal weakness

no skin changes

mononuclear infiltrate in the endomysium, and pattern of atrophy is patchy

polymyositis

17

[diagnosis: common inflammatory myopathies]

immunologic damage to small blood vessels (type I interferon response)

dermatomyositis

18

[diagnosis: common inflammatory myopathies]

CD8 mediated damage to muscle; blood vessels NOT involved

polymyositis

19

[diagnosis]

pelvic girdle weakness up to shoulder, pseudohypertrophy of lower leg, arrythmias, cardiomyopathy, mental retardation,

early onsent, more severe

Dystrophin gene: absent

duchenne

20

[diagnosis]

pelvic girdle weakness up to shoulder, pseudohypertrophy of lower leg, arrythmias, cardiomyopathy, mental retardation,

late onsent, milder

Dystrophin gene: reduced

becker

21

[diagnosis: schwannoma or neurofibroma]

NF2 (merlin)
intracranial cerebellopontine angle attached to CN VIII (vestibular)

schwannoma

22

[diagnosis: schwannoma or neurofibroma]

NF1
plexiform

neurofibroma

23

[schwannoma]

Antoni ___: cellular areas; spindle cells in fascicles

antoni A

24

[schwannoma]

Antoni ___: hypocellular, spindle cells in myxoid stroma

antoni B

25

[diagnosis]

schwannoma on tje cerebellopontine angle attached to CN VIII

NF II

26

[diagnosis]

Presence of antoni A and B, palisading of nuclei with verocay bodies

S100 (+)

Schwannoma

27

[diagnosis]

bland schwannoma cells with stromal cells

CD34+

bag of worms in nerve fascicles

Collagen bundles: shredded carrot

Neurofibroma

Associated with NF1

28

[type of NF]

CD34+
bag of worms
shredded carrot

NF1

29

[diagnosis]

patient is a known NF1
noted new tumor arising within a major nerve, continous with a neurofibroma

highly malignant neurofibroma

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors

30

[diagnosis: type of NF]

pigmented iris nodules
cafe au lait spots
CN VIII gliomas
pheochromocytoma
glial tumors
hamartomatous lesions

NF Type 1