Gastrointestinal tract Pathology Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Gastrointestinal tract Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastrointestinal tract Pathology Deck (78)
Loading flashcards...
1

most common form of congenital intestinal atresia

imperforate anus

2

most common type of TEF

type C

h'

3

[diagnosis: diaphragmatic hernia]
posterolateral defect, usually on the left; more common

bochdalek

4

[diagnosis: diaphragmatic hernia]

anteromedial defect

morgagni

5

[diagnosis]

herniation of abdominal viscera through an enlarged umbilical ring; (+) amnion sac

omphalocele

6

[diagnosis]

herniation of abdominal viscera directly into the amniotic cavity; usually on the right of the umbilicus

gastroschisis

7

[diagnosis]

failed involution of vitelline/omphalomesenteruc duct

meckel diverticulum

8

rule of 2 of meckel diverticulum

2% of the population
2 feet of the ileocecal valve
2 inches long
2x more common in males
2 years old when most often symptomatic
2 types of common ectopic tissue (gastric and pancreatic)

9

[diagnosis]

associated with turners syndrome, trisomy 18, erythromycin/azithromycin exposure during 1st 2 weeks of life

pyloric stenosis

10

[diagnosis]

new-onset regurgitation, feeding abnormalities, 1-2cm abdominal mass

pyloric stenosis

11

[diagnosis]

failure to pass meconium, explosive passage of flatus and feces; megacolon

hirschsprung disease

12

in hirschsprung disease, the aganglionic segment is ___ (dilated/constricted)

constricted

13

[type of esophageal obstruction]

dysphagia to both solids and liquids; static dysphagia

functional obstruction

14

[type of esophageal obstruction]

dysphagia first to solids then liquids; progressive dysphagia

mechanical obstruction

15

[functional esophageal obstruction]

high amplitude contractions of the distal esophagus

nutcracker esophagus

16

[functional esophageal obstruction]

repetitive simultaneous contractions of the distal esophageal smooth muscle

diffuse esophageal spasm

17

[diverticula]
increased wall stress above LES

epiphrenic diverticula

18

[diverticula]

increased wall stress above the UES

pharyngoesophageal (zenker) diverticula

19

___ muscle is associated with the pharyngoesophageal diverticula

cricopharyngeus muscle

20

[diagnosis]

incomplete LES relaxation, increase LES tone, esophageal aperistalsis

achalasia

21

postocaval anastomosis associated with esophageal varices

esophageal branch of left gastric vein and azygous vein

22

[diagnosis]
red velvety mucosa, presence of goblet cell, intestinal metaplasia

barrett esophagus

23

[diagnosis: esophageal CA]

associated with hot drink ingestion, HPV, caustic esophageal injury, commonly seen at the middle third of esophagus

squamous cell CA

24

[diagnosis: esophageal CA]

associated with chronic GERD, H. pylori; commonly seen at the distal third of esophagus

adenoCA

25

[diagnosis: esophageal CA]

precursor lesion: barrett esophagus

adenoCA

26

[diagnosis]

dysphagia, odynophagia, hematemesis, obstrcution, symptoms of GERD, weifht loss

esophageal CA

27

[diagnosis: gastritis]

dominant infiltrate in acute gastritis

neutrophils

28

[diagnosis: gastritis]

dominant infiltrate in chronic gastritis

mononuclear infiltrate

29

[diagnosis]
imbalance between mucosal protective mechanism and injurious stimuli in stomach

gastritis

30

[diagnosis]

intact surface epithelium with foveolar cell hyperplasia; superficial mucosal defect due to epithelial loss

acute gastritis

31

[ulcers]

proximal duodenal ulcers associated with severe burns and trauma

curling ulcers

32

[ulcers]

ulcers associated with increased ICP

cushing ulcers

33

gram negative, microaerophilic, urease-positive, helical bacterium, motile, lophotrichous flagella

H. pylori

34

[gastritis]

seen in antrum, subepithelial plasma cells, hyperplastic/inflamatory, loss of chief cell, presence of neutrophils, intestinal metaplasia,

H. pylori associated

35

[gastritis]
seen in the body, lymphocytes, macrophages, neuroendocrine hyperplasia, antibodies to parietal cells, gastric glands present, endocrine cell hyperplasia,

autoimmune gastritis

36

[diagnosis: ulcer]

mucosal atrophy, decreased gastric acid secretion, epigastric pain with meals or shortly after meals, no nocturnal awakening, associated with adenoCA

gastric ulcer

37

[diagnosis: ulcer]

antral gastritis, increased Gi secretion, epigastric pain several hours after meals, nocturnal awakening present, not associated with gastric adenoCA

duodenal ulcer

38

[diagnosis]

cerebriform enlargement of rugal folds due to epithelial hyperplasia without inflammation

hypertrophic gastropathies

39

[diagnosis]

hypoproteinemia due to protein-losing enteropathy

menetrier disease

40

[diagnosis]
1. gastrinoma/ pancreatic islet tumor
2. gastric hypersecretion
3. peptic ulcer disease

zollinger-ellison syndrome

41

most common GI malignancy

adenoCA

42

most common site of extranodal lymphomas

stomach

43

most common mesenchymal tumor of abdomen

GIST

44

[diagnosis]

dense, lymphocytic infiltrate in lamina propria; low grade GI tumor that can transform to DLBCL

coarsely nodular mucosa

CD19, CD20 (+)
CD5, CD10 (-)
CD43 (+)

gastric lymphoma/MALT lymphoma

45

most important prognostic factor in GI carcinoids

location

46

____ (location) carcinoids are often multiple and agressive

midgut

47

[diagnosis]

tumor originating from the Interstitial cells of Cajal
KIT(+)

GIST

48

prognostic factors that determine the clinical behavior of GISTs

grade, tumor size, location

49

most common cause of intestinal obstruction

hernias

50

most common cause of intestinal obstruction in children

intussusception

51

most common site of ischemic bowel disease

colon, splenic flexure

52

watershed areas of the bowel

sigmoid colon and rectum

53

hallmark of malabsorption syndrome

steatorrhea

54

[diagnosis]

antibodies agains transglutaminase, CD8 T-lymphocytes within villus, triggered by exposure to gliadins

celiac disease

55

[diagnosis: IBD]
transmural wall involvement, , any part of GIT; noncaseating granuloma; fat malabsorption

Crohns Disease

56

[diagnosis]
mural wall involvement, colon and rectum; toxic megacolon, no recurrence after surgery, marked pseudopolyp

Ulcerative colitis

57

[diagnosis]

paneth cell metaplasia (left colon)

CD

58

[diagnosis]

skip lesions, ileum and colon involvement, thick wall, deep knife-like ulcers

CD

59

[diagnosis]
diffuse lesions, colon only, strictures are rare, thin, superficial, broad based ulcers

UC

60

most common site of diverticular disease

sigmoid colon

61

cut-off for polyp to be considered to have high malignacy risk

>4cm

62

[diagnosis: polyp]
elephant-feet glands, seen in the right colon, high malignant potential, absent dysplasia

sessile serrated

63

[diagnosis: polyp]

multiple GI hamartomatous polyp and mucocutatenous hyperpigmentation, autosomal dominant

peutz-jegher polyp

64

[diagnosis: familial tumor syndrome]

APC gene mutation in Ch 5

FAP

65

[diagnosis: familial tumor syndrome]

MSH2, MLH1 gene mutation

HNPCC

66

Cite the Amsterdam criteria for lynch syndrome

3 family members (first degree, FAP ruled out)
2 generations
1 diagnosed under age 50

67

most common site of metastasis of colon CA

liver

68

[diagnosis: colon CA]

bulky, exophytic, tumor bleed, IDA, weakness, fatigue

Proximal colon (right sided) colon CA

69

[diagnosis: colon CA]
napkin-ring, annular configuration, marked change in bowel habits, bowel obstruction

distal colon (left sided)

70

[diagnosis: hemorrhoids]

intestinal-type lining, absent pain except when thrombosed, superior hemorrhoidal plexus involved

internal hemorrhoids

71

[diagnosis: hemorrhoids]

stratified squamous, non-keratinizing lining, pain is present, involved inferior hemorrhoidal plexus

external hemorrhoids

72

most common cause of acute appendicitis in children

lymphoid hyperplasia

73

most common cause of appendicitis in adults

fecalith

74

most common well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, that is almost always benign

appendicial tumor

75

cite examples of enteric bacteria that can cause peritonitis

1. Staphylococcus
2. Streptococcus
3. C. perfringes

76

most common primary soft tissue tumor of the peritoneum

desmoplastic small round cell tumor

77

Most frequently detected mutation in pancreatic CA

KRAS

78

Migrating thrombophlebitis of the superficial vein. Paraneoplastic. Pancreatic CA

Trosseau Sign