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Flashcards in Heart Pathology Deck (60)
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1

Three mechanism that initially maintain CO in HF

1. Frank-starling mechanism
2. Hypertrophy and/or dilation
3. Neurohormonal

2

Parallel formation of new sarcomeres leading hypertrophy is triggered by ____ overload

pressure

parameter: wall thickness

3

Series formation of new sarcomeres leading to dilation is triggered by ____ overload

volume

parameter: weight

4

[diagnosis/type of HF]

liver congestion, spleen congestion, kidneys and brain congestion,

ascites, third spacing, edema
pronounced azotemia

RSHF

5

[type of HF]

DOB, orthopnea, PND, prerenal azotemia, hypoxic encephalopathy

LSHF

6

this marks the irreversibility of CHD lesions

pulmonary hypertension

7

most common type of ASD

Ostium Seccundum (90%)

8

[diagnosis]

fixed, widely split S2, pulmonary-stenosis like murmur, normal aortic knob

ASD

9

most common CHD

VSD

10

most common type of VSD

perimembranous

11

[diagnosis]

continous machinery-like murmur, decreased PVR, decreased PGE2, increased oxygen tension

prominent aortic knob

PDA

12

administration of this maintains patency of PDA

PGE2

13

___ shunt

paradoxical embolism, clubbing, polycythemia

right to left shunt

14

[diagnose this R-L shunt]

increased pBF, RVH

TGA or TAPVR

15

[diagnose this R-L shunt]

increased pBF, LVH

TGA+VSD or PTA without hypoplastic PA

16

[diagnose this R-L shunt]

decreased pBF, LVH

TA, Pulmonic atresia

17

[diagnose this R-L shunt]
decreased pBF, RVH

TOF

18

most common cyanotic CHD

TOF

19

components of TOF

VSD, pulmonary stenosis, overriding aorta, RVH

20

cour en sabot

TOF

boot shaped heart

21

[cyanotic heard disease]

This is associated with PFO, ASD, PDA

apple on a stem appearance

TGA

22

aortic stenosis can lead to ___ hypertrophy

LVH

23

pulmonic stenosis can lead to ___ hypertrophy

RVH

24

[diagnosis]

rib notching on CXR, UE HPN, LVH

location of CoA

Opposite the ligamentum arteriosus, distal to the arch

adult type = post ductal

25

loss of contractility happens in ___ minutes of ischemia

less than 2 minutes

26

irreversible injury happens in ____ minutes of ischemia

20 to 40 minutes

27

___ marker for myocardial reinfarction

CKMB

28

Transmural infarction results to permanent occlusion which reflects as ____ type of MI in ECG

STEMI

29

Subendocardial infarction results to transient occlusion which reflects as ____ type of MI in ECG

NSTEMI

30

most common main vessels involved in MI

LAD > RCA > LCX