Flashcards in Chap 14, Lymphatic and Immune Systems, Pathology Deck (39)
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Depression or suppression of the immune system after exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); marked by opportunistic infections, secondary neoplasms, and neurologic problems.
Infectious diseases associated with AIDS; toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, herpes simplex, and Pneumocystosis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Infectious diseases associated with AIDS; they occur because HIV infection lowers the body's resistance and allows infection by bacteria and parasites that normally are easily contained.
cryptococcal infection (Crypto)
Yeast-like fungus (Cryptococcus) causes lung, brain, and blood infections. Pathogen is found in pigion droppings and nesting places, air, water, and soil.
cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection
Virus causes enteritis and retinitis (inflammation of the retina at the back of the eye). Found in saliva, semen, cervical secretions, urine, feces, blood, and breast milk, but usually causes disease only when the immune system is compromised.
Viral infection causes small blisters on the skin of the lips or nose or on the genitals. Herpes simplex virus also can cause encephalitis.
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
One-celled organism causes lung infection, with fever, cough, and chest pain. Pathogen is found in air, water, and soil and is carried by animals. Infection is treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim), a combination of antibiotics, or with pentamidine. Aerosolized pentamidine, which is inhaled, can prevent occurrence of PCP.
Parasitic infection involving the central nervous system (CNS) and causing fever, chills, visual disturbances, confusion, hemiparesis (slight paralysis in half of the body), and seizures. Pathogen j(Toxoplasma) is acquired by eating uncooked lab or pork, unpasteurized dairy products, or raw eggs or vegetables.
Malignant tumor of skin and connective tissue; associated with AIDS. A cancer arising from the lining cells of capillaries that produces dark purplish skin nodules.
Malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymphatic tissue. Associated with AIDS.
Weight loss and decrease in muscle strength, appetite, and mental activity that occurs with AIDS.
reverse transcriptase (RT)
reverse transcriptase inhibitor
Drug used to treat AIDS by blocking an enzyme (RT, reverse transcriptase), needed to make copies of HIV.
Examples of these drugs: zidovudine and lamivudine (Epivir).
Highly active antiretroviral therapy - use of combinations of drugs that are effective against AIDS.
Abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen (allergen).
Malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymph tissue.
Malignant tumor of bone marrow cells (plasma cells that produce immunoglobulins).
Malignant tumor of the thymus gland.
Exaggerated or unusual hypersensitivity to foreign protein or other substance.
substance capable of causing a specific hypersensitivity reaction in the body; a type of antigen.
Helper T cells that carry the CD4 protein antigen on their surface. HIV binds to CD4 and infects and kills T cells bearing this protein. AIDS patients have an inadequate number of CD4+ cells.
Malignant tumor of lympoid tissue in spleen and lymph nodes. This disease is characterized by lymphadenopathy. Reed-Sternberg cell often is found on microscopic analysis.
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Virus (retrovirus) that causes AIDS.
Malignant lesion associated with AIDS; arises from the lining of capillaries and appears as red, purple, brown or black skin nodules.
Group of malignant tumors involving lympoid tissue. Examples are follicular lymphoma and large cell lymphoma.
Yeast-like fungus (Candida), normally present in the mouth, skin, intestinal tract, and vagina, overgrows, causing infection of the mouth (thrush), respiratory tracts, and skin.
Drug that treats AIDS by blocking the production of protease, a proteolytic enzyme that helps create new viral pieces for HIV.
reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI)
Drug that treats AIDS by blocking reverse transcriptase, an enzyme needed to make copies of HIV.
Weight loss, decrease in muscular strength, appetite, and mental activity; associated with AIDS.
(rash from soaps, cosmetics, chemicals). Atopic means related to atopy, a hypersensitivity or allergic state arising from an inherited predisposition. A person who is atopic is prone to allergies.
or hay fever (caused by pollen or animal dander)
An extraordinary hypersensitivity reaction occurs throughout the body leading to a fall in blood pressure (hypotension), shock, respiratory distress and edema (swelling) of the larynx. Anaphylaxis can be life-threatening.
Parasitic infection of the gastrointestinal tract, brain and spinal cord. The pathogen, Cryptosporidium, is a one-celled organism commonly found in farm animals.
Fungal infection caused by inhalation of dust contaminated with Histoplasma capsulatum; causes fever, chills, and lung infection. Pathogen is found in bird and bat droppings.
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) complex infection
Bacterial disease manifesting with fever, malaise, night sweats, anorexia, diarrhea, weight loss, and lung and blood infections.
Bacterial disease (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) involving the lungs, brain, and other organs. Signs and symptoms are fever, cough, loss of weight, anorexia, and blood in sputum.
Hypersensitive or allergic state involving an inherited predisposition.
Disease of lymph nodes
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM)
A type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)