Chap 18, Endocrine System, Terminology, Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes: Related Terms Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology, LOM > Chap 18, Endocrine System, Terminology, Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes: Related Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 18, Endocrine System, Terminology, Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes: Related Terms Deck (71)
1

andr/o

male

2

androgen

Hormone producing or stimulating male characteristics (e.g. testosterone)

Androgens are produced by the testes in males and by the adrenal cortex in males and females.

3

calc/o, calci/o

calcium

4

hypercalcemia

Increased calcium in the blood.

5

hypocalcemia

Decreased levels of calcium in the blood.

6

hypercalciuria

High levels of calcium in urine.

7

cortic/o

cortex, outer region

8

corticosteroid

Any of the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex.

9

crin/o

secrete

10

endocrinologist

Specialist in diagnosis and treatment of endocrine gland disorders.

11

dips/o

thirst

12

polydipsia

Condition of excessive thirst. Poly- means many or increased. Uncontrolled diabetes (mellitus or insipidus) causes increased thirst.

13

estr/o

female

14

estrogenic

Pertaining to having properties similar to estrogen.

15

gluc/o

sugar

16

glucagon

Hormone from the pancreas that causes sugar to be released into the bloodstream when sugar levels are low. In this term, -agon means to assemble or gather together. Glucagon raises blood sugar by stimulating its release from glycogen (starch) into the bloodstream.

17

glyc/o

sugar

18

hyperglycemia

Blood condition of increased sugar.

19

glycemic

Pertains to sugar in the blood. A patient with diabetes mellitus requires glycemic control.

20

glycogen

An animal starch; produced from sugar by the liver. The liver also converts it (glycogen) back to glucose. Glucagon promotes glycogenolysis.

21

home/o

sameness

22

homeostasis

State of equilibrium (constancy) of the body's internal environment. The suffix -stasis means to control.

23

hormon/o

hormone

24

hormonal

Pertaining to hormones.

25

kal/i

potassium

26

hypokalemia

Low levels of potassium (K+) in the blood. This condition can occur in dehydration and with excessive vomiting and diarrhea. The heart is particularly sensitive to potassium loss.

27

lact/o

milk

28

prolactin

Hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) that promotes the growth of breast tissue and stimulates milk production. The suffix -in means a substance.

29

myx/o

mucus

30

myxedema

Condition of mucous-like swelling of the face and soft tissues; due to hyposecretion of the thyroid gland in adults. Mucus-like material accumulates under the skin.

31

natr/o

sodium (Na+)

32

hyponatremia

Blood condition of deficiency of sodium. Occurs with hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex as salts and water leave the body.

33

phys/o

growing

34

hypophysectomy

Removal of the pituitary gland. The hypophysis is the pituitary gland, which is so named because it grows from the undersurface (hypo-) of the brain.

Abnormal pituitary gland tissue is removed with instruments passed through the nasal passages and an opening created in the sphenoid bone (transsphenoidal hypophysectomy). The gland is removed to slow the growth of endocrine-dependent malignant tumors or to excise a pituitary tumor. Other treatments to destroy pituitary tissue include radiation therapy, radioactive implants, and cryosurgery.

35

somat/o

body

36

somatotropin

Growth hormone (GH) secreted by the anterior pituitary gland; stimulates growth of bones and tissues.

37

ster/o

solid structure

38

steroid

An organic (containing carbon) compound. This solid, ring-shaped molecule resembles a sterol (such as cholesterol); many hormones (androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids) bile acids, and vitamin D are steroids.

39

toc/o

childbirth

40

oxytocin

Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis); stimulates childbirth. Oxy- means rapid.

41

toxic/o

poison

42

thyrotoxicosis

Condition caused by excessive thyroid gland activity and oversecretion of thyroid hormone. Signs and symptoms are sweating, weight loss, tachycardia, and nervousness.

43

ur/o

urine

44

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) hormone that affects the kidneys and reduces water loss.

45

-agon

assemble, gather together

46

glucagon

Hormone from the pancreas that "assembles" sugar from starch and increases blood sugar when it is low.

47

-emia

blood condition

48

hypoglycemia

low levels of sugar in the blood.

49

-in, -ine

substance

50

epinephrine

Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases blood pressure and heart rate, dilates bronchial tubes, and releases glucose (sugars) from glycogen (animal starch, storage substance) when the body needs it for more energy.

51

-tropin

stimulating the function of (to turn or act on)

52

adrenocorticotropin

Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release hormones. The ending -tropic is the adjective form (adrenocorticotropic hormone, ACTH)

53

-uria

urine condition

54

glycosuria

Condition of sugar in the urine. Sign of diabetes mellitus.

55

eu-

good, normal

56

euthyroid

Normal thyroid function.

57

hyper-

excessive; above

58

hyperkalemia

high levels of potassium in blood. Seen in acute renal failure, massive trauma, and major burns.

59

-hypo

deficient; below; under; less than normal

60

hypoinsulinism

low levels of insulin. Deficient secretion of insulin by the pancreas.

61

oxy-

rapid, sharp, acid

{Oxy/o Meaning Acid: In 1774, the French scientist Antoine Lavoisier named a new gas oxygen because he incorrectly believed that the gas was an essential part of all acids.}

62

oxytocin

Hormone from the neurohypophysis that stimulates childbirth

63

pan-

all

64

panhypopituitarism

Condition of deficient secretion of all hormones from the pituitary gland.

65

poly-

many or increased

66

polyuria

Excessive urine production. This is a sign of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus or insipidus.

67

tetra-

four

68

tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4)

Thyroid gland hormone containing 4 atoms of iodine; thyroxine. Iod/o or iod/o means iodine. This hormone, secreted by the thyroid gland, increases metabolism in cells.

69

tri-

three

70

triiodothyronine (T3)

Thyroid gland hormone containing 3 atoms of iodine. This hormone, secreted by the thyroid gland, increases metabolism in cells.

71

Potassium and Sodium

In patient charts, potassium is abbreviated as K and sodium is abbreviated as Na. As electrolytes, they are written as K+ and Na+.

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