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Flashcards in Embalming Lab Manual Powerpoint Deck (109):
1

Father of modern/U.S. embalming.

Dr. Thomas Holmes

2

"Father of embalming."

Dr. Frederick Rhusch

3

Going towards the middle of the body.
- Towards the midsagittal plane

Medial

4

Diving the body though the midis into the right and left equal halves.

Midsagittal Plane

5

An imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts. It is perpendicular to the coral and sagittal planes.

Transverse, Horizontal, Axial, Transaxial Plane

6

Going away from the middle of the body, away from the midsagittal plane.

Lateral

7

Lateral and superficial.

Jugular Vein

8

Deep and medial (slightly)

Carotid Artery

9

Going towards the surface of the body.
- i.e., Epidermis

Superficial

10

Going towards the center of the body well below the surface.
- I.e., Dermis

Deep

11

- Epidermis
- Dermis

Layers of the skin

12

Defined as the outermost later of skin.

Epidermis, Cuticle, Scarf Skin

13

The deep layer of skin under the epidermis.

Dermis, Derma, Skin, Corium, True Skin

14

Noting a superficial artery, vein, or nerve, or other structure near the body surface.

Superficialis

15

Defined as, situated or occurring beneath the skin.
- I.e., Fat (adipose tissue, corpulence)

Subcutaneous

16

Anatomically going towards the feet.

Inferior

17

Anatomically going towards the head.

Superior

18

Anatomically going towards the body.

Proximal

19

Anatomically going away from the body.

Distal

20

Situated at or directed toward the front of the body.

Anterior (Ventral)

21

Situated at or directed toward the back of the body.

Posterior (Dorsal)

22

To divide into two branches.

- I.E., Inferior vena cava do this into the right and left common iliac veins.

Bifurcate

23

Anatomical term describing fingers and toes; the thumb is #1 for each hand and the large toe is #1 for each foot.

Digits

24

To touch or contact as with the tarsal plates of the closed eyelids.

Abut

25

Eminence at the medial corner of the closed eyelids.
- Does not always close

Inner Canthus

26

Inferior 1/3 of the eye.

Line of eye closure

27

Place or union between two or more bones.

Articulation

28

In front of the elbow; in the bend of the elbow.

Antecubital

29

Part of the integumentary system.
- Largest organ in the body
- Primary function is to protect the body.

Skin

30

Defined as the space between the roof of the mouth and the floor of the cranial cavity.

Nasal Cavity

31

Defined as the mouth and the vestibule, or the opening of the throat.

Oral Cavity

32

Defined as the vestibule of the oral cavity; the space between the lips, gums and teeth.

Buccal Cavity

33

1. Nasal Cavity
2. Oral Cavity
3. Buccal Cavity

Cavities

34

The correct anatomical term for a double chin.

Buccula

35

Body laying face up.

Supine

36

Body lying face down.

Prone

37

The white portion of the eye.
- Can give you a sign of certain diseases.

Sclera

38

The inner lining of the eye that receives the images formed by the lens and transmits those images to the brain through the optic nerve.

Retina

39

Transparent part of the tunic of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light into the interior.

Cornea

40

Mucous membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the white portion of the eye.

Conjunctiva

41

A thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupils and thus the amount of light reaching the retina. "Eye color" is the color of this.

Iris

42

Formation of new channels in a tissue.
- Can be pathological or physiological
- Example: Collateral Circulation

Canalization

43

Restorative treatment usually accompanied by aspiration, gravitation, or external pressure to remove gases or excess liquids from tissues; passages are made through the tissues with a scalpel, hypodermic needle, or trocar.
- Man-made

Channeling

44

The formation of cavities in an organ or tissue; frequently seen in some forms of tuberculosis.
- Physiological or pathological

Cavitation

45

The hallow space within an artery, vein, intestine, or anatomical, tube-like structure.

- Decreases in diametric size as they distance themselves from the aorta and vena cava.

Lumen

46

The center of embalming circulation.
- Imperative to select an injection site as close as possible to this.

Arch of The Aorta

47

The center of venous drainage.
- The juncture of the superior and inferior vena cava which occurs here.
- Used as a site of drainage via instruments from the right internal jugular vein and direct via the trocar or through the thoracic wall.
- Therefore always drain from the right side

Right Atrium of The Heart

48

A process that can accomplish:
- Blood drainage is removed by the arterial solution pushing the blood forward toward the open drainage.

Displacement

49

- Deep or superficial?
- What is the relationship of the artery and vein to surrounding structures (could they cause problems)?
- Th presence or absence of branches of the vessels which might be disturbed and blocked by its use.
- All incisions used in arterial injection should be limited to no more than 3".

Selection of Arteries And Veins

50

General Deterioration of the body; a state of ill health, malnutrition, and wasting. It may occur in many chronic diseases as certain malignancies and advanced pulmonary tuberculosis.
- Often found in the fetal position

Cachexia (Wasting Syndrome)

51

Areas of embalmed tissue where excessive dehydration has occurred.

- May occur in the area of the right common carotid artery caused by instruments at this injection site.
- Common causes:
- Razor burn
- Drainage Forceps
- Drain Tube
- Aneurysm hooks (careless)

Desiccation Marks

52

May happen at these sites:
- R & L Common Carotids
- R & L Ulnar Arteries
- R & L Radial Arteries

- For low cut shirts, the best artery to raise is the femoral artery.
- Use bandaids for babies

Incisions May be Visible

53

Because of certain anatomical structures, bones, tendons, muscles, cartilage, etc, good drainage is often difficult to establish and maintain.

Practicability of establishing good drainage from corresponding veins

54

- The descending thoracic and abdominal aorta lies to the left of the spinal column.
- The Inferior Vena Cava lies to the right of the spine.
- Always drain from the right side of the body

Aorta VS Vena Cava

55

The viewing side is to which side of the face?

Right

56

Any surface, prominence, or structure which is used in establishing the location of an adjacent structure or prominence (usually muscles). A descriptive reference for locating arteries and veins by means of anatomical structures which are known.

Anatomical Guide

57

The point of origin and termination of a vessel as expressed in relation to adjacent anatomical structures or prominences. Points of origin and points of termination in relation to adjacent structures; used to designate the boundaries or arteries.

Anatomical Limits

58

An imaginary line drawn on the surface of the skin which represents the approximate location of deeper lying structures or prominences. A line drawn or visualized on the surface of the skin to represent the approximate location of some deeper-lying structure.

Linear Guide

59

Defined as the body is erect, feet together, palms facing forward, and thumbs are pointed away from the body.

Anatomical Position

60

- R & L Common Carotids
- R & L Axillary (not as often)
- R & L Brachial (not as often)
- R & L Femoral

Arteries most commonly used in embalming (non-autopsy)

61

Most common artery used to inject the arm.

Brachial

62

Best artery to inject the arm.

Axillary (it covers the whole arm)

63

- R & L Common Carotids
- R & L Subclavians
- R & L External Iliacs

- Usually not the common iliacs or the axillaries (due to the branching of the subclavian artery).

Arteries most commonly used in embalming (autopsy)

64

1. Left and right vertebral
2. Left and right internal Mammary
3. Left and right costocervical
4. Left and right Thyrocervical

4 Branches of the Subclavian Artery

65

1. Right Brachiocephalic (Innominate)
2. Left Common Carotid
3. Left Subclavian

- Note: There is no left brachiocephalic artery (but there is a right brachiocephalic vein).

Three Branches of the Arch of the Aorta

66

- The right common carotid artery is a terminal branch of the brachiocephalic artery.
- The brachiocephalic artery is the first branch off the arch of the aorta.
- The left common carotid artery is the second branch off the arch of the aorta.

Common Carotid Artery Origin

67

A point from the sternoclavicular articulation to the anterior surface of the lobe of the ear.

Linear Guide of The Common Carotid Artery.

68

Along the medial border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.

Anatomical Guide of the Common Carotid Artery

69

The left common carotid artery is longer than the right common carotid artery.
- The left common carotid goes down to the arch of the aorta.

Anatomical Limits of the common carotid artery

70

The right common carotid artery bifurcates into the:
- Internal- supplies the brain
- External- supplies the face

Internal and External Carotid Artery

71

- Along the superior border of the clavicle bone. (3" Maximum)
- Along the medial 1/3 of the clavicle bone thus exposing the vessel near its point of origin.
- An incision on the surface of the skin to raise the common carotid arteries. It is made along the superior border of the medial one third of the clavicle.

- Danger: Visible

Supraclavicular Incision of the common carotid artery

72

Where do most funeral homes prefer the incision for the common carotid arteries?

Along the middle 1/3 below the clavicle bone.
- less visible after dressing

73

Established by drawing a line along the fold of skin which envelopes the lateral border of the pectoralis major muscle.

Anterior Boundary of the Axillary Space

74

Established by drawing a line along the fold of skin which envelopes the lateral border of the latissimus dorsi muscle.

Posterior Boundary of the Axillary Space

75

Established by drawing a line which connects the two points were the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles blend into the chest wall.

Medial Boundary of the Axillary Space

76

Established by drawing a line which connects the two points where the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles blend into the arm.

Lateral Boundary of the Axillary Space

77

A vertical line drawn from the center of the medial border of the base of the axillary space.

Mid-Axillary Line

78

- Runes parallel to the humerus bone.
- In the belly of the bicep

Brachial Artery (topically located)

79

- Radial Artery (thumb 1st digit)
- Ulnar Artery (Little finger 5th digit)

Brachial Bifurcation

80

Best artery to use to arterial inject the hand.

Radial

81

Deoxygenated blood from the superior and inferior vena cava flows/ enters the heart though here.

Right Atrium

82

Deoxygenated blood flows from the right atrium through here.

Tricuspid Valve

83

Deoxygenated blood flows from the tricuspid valve to here.

Right Ventricle

84

Deoxygenated blood leaves the right ventricle and enters this.

Pulmonary Semilunar Valve

85

Deoxygenated blood flows from the pulmonary semilunar valve though this, into the arterioles, capillaries and into the alveoli where it releases carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen.

Pulmonary Artery

86

Oxygenated blood is returned from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart via this.

Pulmonary vein

87

Oxygenated blood from the pulmonary vein reenters the heart via this.

Left Atrium

88

Oxygenated blood from the left atrium flows into this.

Bicuspid valve (Mitral Valve)

89

Oxygenated blood flows from the bicuspid valve (mitral valve) into here.

Left Ventricle

90

Oxygenated blood from the left ventricle goes through here and into the ascending aorta.

Aortic Semilunar Valve

91

Carry blood away from the heart.

Arteries

92

Carry blood towards the heart.
- Except for the portal, which carries blood towards the liver.

Veins

93

Have valves.
- Except for the inferior and superior vena cava.

Veins

94

Do not have valves.

Arteries

95

Carry oxygenated blood.
- Except for the pulmonary.

Arteries

96

Carry deoxygenated blood.
- Except for the pulmonary.

Veins

97

Tip.

Apex

98

Bottom of the heart.

Apex of the left ventricle.

99

Divided into 4 parts:
- Ascending
- Arch
- Descending Thoracic
- Descending Abdominal

- The phrenic muscle (diaphragm) divides the descending thoracic and abdominal.

Branches of the Aorta

100

From the Bottom of the descending aorta and up, the artery is always ___1____ and the vein is always ___2____.

1. Deep (artery)
2. Superficial (vein)

101

The branches of this supplies blood to the thoracic (chest) organs and tissues.

Descending Thoracic Aorta

102

The branches of this supplies blood to the abdominal organs and tissues.

Descending Abdominal Aorta

103

Bifurcates into the right and left common iliac arteries.
- At this point, the vein becomes deep and the artery becomes superficial.

Descending Abdominal Aorta

104

A branch off of the common iliac artery.
- Superior to this is the common iliac artery.
- Inferior to this is the external iliac artery.

Internal Iliac Artery (Hypogastric artery)

105

Is an extension/ continuation of the common iliac artery.
- Terminates in the inguinal ligament where it becomes the femoral artery.

External Iliac Artery

106

Superior- Inguinal Ligament
Lateral- Satorius muscle
Medial- Adductor longus muscle

Femoral Triangle

107

Ends at the popliteal artery.

Femoral Artery

108

Bifurcates into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.

Popliteal Artery

109

Is a branch off of the posterior tibial artery.

Peroneal Artery

Decks in Embalming Class (61):