Flashcards in Embalming Lab Manual Powerpoint Deck (109):
Father of modern/U.S. embalming.
Dr. Thomas Holmes
"Father of embalming."
Dr. Frederick Rhusch
Going towards the middle of the body.
- Towards the midsagittal plane
Diving the body though the midis into the right and left equal halves.
An imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts. It is perpendicular to the coral and sagittal planes.
Transverse, Horizontal, Axial, Transaxial Plane
Going away from the middle of the body, away from the midsagittal plane.
Lateral and superficial.
Deep and medial (slightly)
Going towards the surface of the body.
- i.e., Epidermis
Going towards the center of the body well below the surface.
- I.e., Dermis
Layers of the skin
Defined as the outermost later of skin.
Epidermis, Cuticle, Scarf Skin
The deep layer of skin under the epidermis.
Dermis, Derma, Skin, Corium, True Skin
Noting a superficial artery, vein, or nerve, or other structure near the body surface.
Defined as, situated or occurring beneath the skin.
- I.e., Fat (adipose tissue, corpulence)
Anatomically going towards the feet.
Anatomically going towards the head.
Anatomically going towards the body.
Anatomically going away from the body.
Situated at or directed toward the front of the body.
Situated at or directed toward the back of the body.
To divide into two branches.
- I.E., Inferior vena cava do this into the right and left common iliac veins.
Anatomical term describing fingers and toes; the thumb is #1 for each hand and the large toe is #1 for each foot.
To touch or contact as with the tarsal plates of the closed eyelids.
Eminence at the medial corner of the closed eyelids.
- Does not always close
Inferior 1/3 of the eye.
Line of eye closure
Place or union between two or more bones.
In front of the elbow; in the bend of the elbow.
Part of the integumentary system.
- Largest organ in the body
- Primary function is to protect the body.
Defined as the space between the roof of the mouth and the floor of the cranial cavity.
Defined as the mouth and the vestibule, or the opening of the throat.
Defined as the vestibule of the oral cavity; the space between the lips, gums and teeth.
1. Nasal Cavity
2. Oral Cavity
3. Buccal Cavity
The correct anatomical term for a double chin.
Body laying face up.
Body lying face down.
The white portion of the eye.
- Can give you a sign of certain diseases.
The inner lining of the eye that receives the images formed by the lens and transmits those images to the brain through the optic nerve.
Transparent part of the tunic of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light into the interior.
Mucous membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the white portion of the eye.
A thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupils and thus the amount of light reaching the retina. "Eye color" is the color of this.
Formation of new channels in a tissue.
- Can be pathological or physiological
- Example: Collateral Circulation
Restorative treatment usually accompanied by aspiration, gravitation, or external pressure to remove gases or excess liquids from tissues; passages are made through the tissues with a scalpel, hypodermic needle, or trocar.
The formation of cavities in an organ or tissue; frequently seen in some forms of tuberculosis.
- Physiological or pathological
The hallow space within an artery, vein, intestine, or anatomical, tube-like structure.
- Decreases in diametric size as they distance themselves from the aorta and vena cava.
The center of embalming circulation.
- Imperative to select an injection site as close as possible to this.
Arch of The Aorta
The center of venous drainage.
- The juncture of the superior and inferior vena cava which occurs here.
- Used as a site of drainage via instruments from the right internal jugular vein and direct via the trocar or through the thoracic wall.
- Therefore always drain from the right side
Right Atrium of The Heart
A process that can accomplish:
- Blood drainage is removed by the arterial solution pushing the blood forward toward the open drainage.
- Deep or superficial?
- What is the relationship of the artery and vein to surrounding structures (could they cause problems)?
- Th presence or absence of branches of the vessels which might be disturbed and blocked by its use.
- All incisions used in arterial injection should be limited to no more than 3".
Selection of Arteries And Veins
General Deterioration of the body; a state of ill health, malnutrition, and wasting. It may occur in many chronic diseases as certain malignancies and advanced pulmonary tuberculosis.
- Often found in the fetal position
Cachexia (Wasting Syndrome)
Areas of embalmed tissue where excessive dehydration has occurred.
- May occur in the area of the right common carotid artery caused by instruments at this injection site.
- Common causes:
- Razor burn
- Drainage Forceps
- Drain Tube
- Aneurysm hooks (careless)
May happen at these sites:
- R & L Common Carotids
- R & L Ulnar Arteries
- R & L Radial Arteries
- For low cut shirts, the best artery to raise is the femoral artery.
- Use bandaids for babies
Incisions May be Visible
Because of certain anatomical structures, bones, tendons, muscles, cartilage, etc, good drainage is often difficult to establish and maintain.
Practicability of establishing good drainage from corresponding veins
- The descending thoracic and abdominal aorta lies to the left of the spinal column.
- The Inferior Vena Cava lies to the right of the spine.
- Always drain from the right side of the body
Aorta VS Vena Cava
The viewing side is to which side of the face?
Any surface, prominence, or structure which is used in establishing the location of an adjacent structure or prominence (usually muscles). A descriptive reference for locating arteries and veins by means of anatomical structures which are known.
The point of origin and termination of a vessel as expressed in relation to adjacent anatomical structures or prominences. Points of origin and points of termination in relation to adjacent structures; used to designate the boundaries or arteries.
An imaginary line drawn on the surface of the skin which represents the approximate location of deeper lying structures or prominences. A line drawn or visualized on the surface of the skin to represent the approximate location of some deeper-lying structure.
Defined as the body is erect, feet together, palms facing forward, and thumbs are pointed away from the body.
- R & L Common Carotids
- R & L Axillary (not as often)
- R & L Brachial (not as often)
- R & L Femoral
Arteries most commonly used in embalming (non-autopsy)
Most common artery used to inject the arm.
Best artery to inject the arm.
Axillary (it covers the whole arm)
- R & L Common Carotids
- R & L Subclavians
- R & L External Iliacs
- Usually not the common iliacs or the axillaries (due to the branching of the subclavian artery).
Arteries most commonly used in embalming (autopsy)
1. Left and right vertebral
2. Left and right internal Mammary
3. Left and right costocervical
4. Left and right Thyrocervical
4 Branches of the Subclavian Artery
1. Right Brachiocephalic (Innominate)
2. Left Common Carotid
3. Left Subclavian
- Note: There is no left brachiocephalic artery (but there is a right brachiocephalic vein).
Three Branches of the Arch of the Aorta
- The right common carotid artery is a terminal branch of the brachiocephalic artery.
- The brachiocephalic artery is the first branch off the arch of the aorta.
- The left common carotid artery is the second branch off the arch of the aorta.
Common Carotid Artery Origin
A point from the sternoclavicular articulation to the anterior surface of the lobe of the ear.
Linear Guide of The Common Carotid Artery.
Along the medial border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
Anatomical Guide of the Common Carotid Artery
The left common carotid artery is longer than the right common carotid artery.
- The left common carotid goes down to the arch of the aorta.
Anatomical Limits of the common carotid artery
The right common carotid artery bifurcates into the:
- Internal- supplies the brain
- External- supplies the face
Internal and External Carotid Artery
- Along the superior border of the clavicle bone. (3" Maximum)
- Along the medial 1/3 of the clavicle bone thus exposing the vessel near its point of origin.
- An incision on the surface of the skin to raise the common carotid arteries. It is made along the superior border of the medial one third of the clavicle.
- Danger: Visible
Supraclavicular Incision of the common carotid artery
Where do most funeral homes prefer the incision for the common carotid arteries?
Along the middle 1/3 below the clavicle bone.
- less visible after dressing
Established by drawing a line along the fold of skin which envelopes the lateral border of the pectoralis major muscle.
Anterior Boundary of the Axillary Space
Established by drawing a line along the fold of skin which envelopes the lateral border of the latissimus dorsi muscle.
Posterior Boundary of the Axillary Space
Established by drawing a line which connects the two points were the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles blend into the chest wall.
Medial Boundary of the Axillary Space
Established by drawing a line which connects the two points where the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles blend into the arm.
Lateral Boundary of the Axillary Space
A vertical line drawn from the center of the medial border of the base of the axillary space.
- Runes parallel to the humerus bone.
- In the belly of the bicep
Brachial Artery (topically located)
- Radial Artery (thumb 1st digit)
- Ulnar Artery (Little finger 5th digit)
Best artery to use to arterial inject the hand.
Deoxygenated blood from the superior and inferior vena cava flows/ enters the heart though here.
Deoxygenated blood flows from the right atrium through here.
Deoxygenated blood flows from the tricuspid valve to here.
Deoxygenated blood leaves the right ventricle and enters this.
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
Deoxygenated blood flows from the pulmonary semilunar valve though this, into the arterioles, capillaries and into the alveoli where it releases carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen.
Oxygenated blood is returned from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart via this.
Oxygenated blood from the pulmonary vein reenters the heart via this.
Oxygenated blood from the left atrium flows into this.
Bicuspid valve (Mitral Valve)
Oxygenated blood flows from the bicuspid valve (mitral valve) into here.
Oxygenated blood from the left ventricle goes through here and into the ascending aorta.
Aortic Semilunar Valve
Carry blood away from the heart.
Carry blood towards the heart.
- Except for the portal, which carries blood towards the liver.
- Except for the inferior and superior vena cava.
Do not have valves.
Carry oxygenated blood.
- Except for the pulmonary.
Carry deoxygenated blood.
- Except for the pulmonary.
Bottom of the heart.
Apex of the left ventricle.
Divided into 4 parts:
- Descending Thoracic
- Descending Abdominal
- The phrenic muscle (diaphragm) divides the descending thoracic and abdominal.
Branches of the Aorta
From the Bottom of the descending aorta and up, the artery is always ___1____ and the vein is always ___2____.
1. Deep (artery)
2. Superficial (vein)
The branches of this supplies blood to the thoracic (chest) organs and tissues.
Descending Thoracic Aorta
The branches of this supplies blood to the abdominal organs and tissues.
Descending Abdominal Aorta
Bifurcates into the right and left common iliac arteries.
- At this point, the vein becomes deep and the artery becomes superficial.
Descending Abdominal Aorta
A branch off of the common iliac artery.
- Superior to this is the common iliac artery.
- Inferior to this is the external iliac artery.
Internal Iliac Artery (Hypogastric artery)
Is an extension/ continuation of the common iliac artery.
- Terminates in the inguinal ligament where it becomes the femoral artery.
External Iliac Artery
Superior- Inguinal Ligament
Lateral- Satorius muscle
Medial- Adductor longus muscle
Ends at the popliteal artery.
Bifurcates into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.