Method of mouth closure in which a suture is passed through the septum of the nose and through the mentalis muscle of the chin.
Musculature (Muscular) Suture
The movement of the arterial solution through the capillaries into the intercellular spaces, from an intravascular to an extravascular position.
Condition in which interstitial spaces contain such excessive amounts of fluid that the skin remains depressed after palpation.
Postmortem accumulation of gas in tissues or cavities brought about by an anaerobic gas forming bacillus- Clostridium perfringens.
These levels are established to ensure adequate protection of employees at exposures below the OSHA limits, but to minimize the compliance burdens for employers whose employees have exposures below the 8 hour permissible exposure limit (PEL).
Action Level (AL-Exposure Limits)
Legal limits established by OSHA to which workers can be exposed continuously for a short period of time without damage or injury.
- Exposures that reach this limit should not be more than 15 minutes and not repeated more than 4 times per work day.
Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)
The pressure which is indicated by the injector gague needle when the arterial tube is open and the arterial solution is flowing into the body.
A wasting; decrease in size of an organ or tissue.
Conditions characterized by excessive concentrations of bilirubin in the skin and tissues and deposition of excessive bile pigment in the skin, cornea, body fluids, and mucous membranes with the resulting yellow appearance of the patient.
Antemortem and/or postmortem settling of blood and/or other fluids to dependent portions of the body.
Method of mouth closure in which a suture is passed through the septum of the nose and around the mandible.
Removal of particles (liquid or solid) from a solution, as it passes through a membrane or other partial barrier.
Weakening of the embalming solution by the fluids in the body, both vascular and interstitial.
The building phase of postmortem metabolism. (Part of postmortem caloricity)
Abnormal accumulation of fluids in a saclike structure, especially the scrotal sac.
Pathological death of a tissue still part of the living organism.
Chemicals which kill or render incapible of reproducing disease causing microorganisms.
Ingredient of embalming fluids that retards the natural postmortem tendency of blood to become more viscous or prevents adverse reactions between blood and other embalming chemicals.
Underdevelopment of a tissue, organ or the body.
The rise in temperature after death due to continued cellular metabolism.
An agent used to remove chemical constituents from municipal water supplies that could interfere with drainage and preservation.
An evaluation of exposures that are time-weighted over an established period. It allows the exposure levels to be averaged generally over an eight-hour time period.
Time Weighted Average (TWA)
An organic compound containing nitrogen; any compounds formed when ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by organic radicals.
- The general formula for a primary is R-NH2.
Chemical that increases the ability of embalmed tissue to retain moisture.
Established by drawing a line which connects the two points where the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles blend into the chest wall.
Medial Border (Axillary Space)
The substance that is dissolved in a solution.
Destruction of red blood cells that liberates hemoglobin.
Circumscribed inflammation of the skin and deeper tissues that ends in suppuration and is accompanied by systemic symptoms, such as fever and leukocytosis; several communicating boils of the skin and subcutaneous tissues with the production and discharge of pus and dead tissue.
Within a cell or cells.
The red respiratory portion of the red blood cells, iron containing pigment of red blood cells functioning to carry oxygen to the cells.
An organic catalyst produced by living cells and capable of autolytic decomposition.
Established by drawing a line along the fold of skin which envelopes the lateral border of the pectoralis major muscle.
Anterior Boundary (Axillary Space)
Chemicals added to the embalming solution to deal with varying demands predicated upon the embalming fluid to be used, type of embalming, and the environment.
A protein found in blood plasma.
Any one of a group of nitrogenous organic compounds formed by the action of putrefactive baceria on proteins.
The dilution attained as the embalming solution is mixed in the embalming machine.
Colorless, strong-smelling gas that when used in solution is a powerful preservative and disinfectant; a potential occupational carcinogen.
Formaldehyde (HCHO, CH2O)
Postmortem evacuation of any substance from an external orifice of the body as a result of pressure.
Chemical in powder form that has the ability to absorb and to disinfect. Often used in cavity treatment of autopsied cases.
The pressure indicated by the injector gague needle when the injector motor is running and the arterial tubing is clamped off.
An agent, usually chemical, applied to inanimate objects/surfaces to destroy disease causing microbial agents, but usually not bacterial spores.
An influential person in medical embalming who is regarded as the "Father of Modern Embalming" and the "Father of Embalming in The United States." (American)
Dr. Thomas Holmes (1817-1900)
Chemical in powder form, typically used for surface embalming of the remains.
Postmortem cooling of the body to the surrounding temperature.
The passage of solvent from a solution of lesser to one of greater solute concentration when the two solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane.
Osmosis (Hindered Diffusion)
As related to decomposition, the conversion of fatty tissues of the body into a soapy, waxy substance called adipocere or grave wax.
Saponification (Process of Soap Formation)
The destruction and/or inhibition of most pathogenic organisms and their products in or on the body.
Intravascular: The increase of viscosity of blood brought about by the clumping of particulate formed elements in the blood vessels which is a specific type of congealing.
The deep later of skin under the epidermis.
Derma (Dermis, Skin, Corium, True Skin)
Established by drawing a line along the fold of skin which envelopes the lateral border of the latissimus dorsi muscle.
Posterior Boundary (Axillary Space)
A specific antibody acting destructively upon cells and tissues.
The difference between potential and actual pressure.
Extravascular color change that occurs when heme, released by hemolysis of red blood cells, seeps through the vessel walls and into the body tissues.
Postmortem Stain (Laking)
A liquid holding another substance in solution.
A non-toxic disinfectant suitable for the use on animal tissue.
The movement of the arterial solution from the point of injection through the blood vascular system.
Organic compound found in plants and animals; can be broken down into amino acids.
An influential person in medical embalming who is known as the "Father of Embalming." (Dutch)
Frederick Ruysch (1665-1717)
Pathologic state, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the blood and other tissues.
General deterioration of the body; a state of ill health, malnutrition, and wasting. It may occur in many chronic diseases as certain malignancies and advanced pulmonary tuberculosis.
Cachexia (Wasting Syndrome)
Extravascular movement of preservative fluids by gravitational force to the dependent areas of the body.
Grey discoloration of the body caused by the reaction of formaldehyde from the embalming process with hemoglobin to form methyl hemoglobin.
Positive intravascular pressure causing passage of embalming solution through the capillary causing passage of embalming fluid from an intravascular through capillary walls to diffuse with the interstitial fluids; extravascular position.
A paired bone with several processes that form the skeletal base of most of the superior face, roof of the mouth, sides of the nasal cavity, and floor of the orbit.
Between the cells of a structure.
Organelle that exists within a cell, but separate from the cell; contains hydrolytic enzymes that break down proteins and certain carbohydrates.
Group of chemicals used in addition to vascular (arterial) and cavity embalming fluids; includes but is not limited to:
- Hardening compounds
- Preservative powders
- Sealing agents
- Mold preventative agents
- Pack application agents
Absorption of the fluid portion of blood by the tissues after death resulting in postmortem edema.
Drug-induced edema wherein the excess fluid is located within the cell. Upon palpation, there is no noticable depression.
The presence of bacteria in the blood.
Antemortem necrosis in a wound infected by an anaerobic gas forming bacillus, the most common etiologic agent being Clostridium perfringens.
The action of a force against an opposing force (a force applied or acting against resistance).
Soft whiteish crumbly or greasy material that forms upon the postmortem hydrolysis and hydrogenation of body fats.
Adipocere (Grave Wax)
Necrotic tissue that is wet as a result of inadequate venous drainage; may be accompanied by bacterial infection.
Wet (Moist) Gangrene
Acute, deep-seated inflammation in the skin which usually begins as a subcutaneous swelling of a hair follicle.
Fluid injected for purposes other than preservation and disinfection.
Postmortem, intravascular, red-blue discoloration resulting from hypostasis of blood can usually be cleared via arterial injection and drainage.
Livor Mortis (Cadaveric Lividity, Postmortem Lividity)
A substance bringing about precipitation.
- The oxilates formerly used in water conditioning chemicals are now illegal because of the poisinous nature to the embalmer.
Fluid in the supporting connective tissues surrounding body cells (about one-fifth of the body weight).
The horseshoe-shaped bone forming the inferior jaw.
Antemortem, physiological death of the cells of the body followed by their replacement.
- Most cells in the body are completely replaced every 14 years.
Condition that results when the body part that dies had little blood and remains aseptic and occurs when the arteries but not the veins are obstructed.
A chemical which affects the stabilization of the acid-base (pH) balance within embalming solutions and in the embalmed tissues.
Distension of the tissues beneath the skin by gas or air; an antemortem condition brought about by a surgical procedure or trauma. (Not caused by bacteria).
Injection of embalming chemicals directly into the tissues through the use of a syringe and a needle or trocar.
Building blocks of which proteins are constructed, and the end products of protein digestion or hydrolysis.
- Their basic formula: NH2-CHR-COOH
- An amino group (NH2)
- An alpha carbon
- Any aliphatic or aromatic radical
- And a carboxyl group (COOH)
An injury caused by a blow without laceration; a contusion.
Loss of blood to the point where life can no longer be sustained.
The breakdown phase in postmortem metabolism that releases heat and energy. (Part of postmortem caloricity).
Chemicals which inactivate saprophytic bacteria, render unsuitable for nutrition the media upon decomposition which such bacteria thrive, and which will arrest by altering enzymes and lysins of the body as well as converting the decomposable tissue to a form less susceptibe to decomposition.
The non protein portion of hemoglobin; the red pigment of the hemoglobin.
Separation of substances in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane.
Dialysis (Selective Diffusion)
To force a fluid through (an organ or tissue), especially by way of the blood vessels; injection during vascular (arterial) embalming.
The maximum legal limits established by OSHA for regulated substances. These are based on employee exposure that are time-weighted over an eight-hour work shift. When these limits are exceeded, employers must take proper steps to reduce employee exposure for Formaldehyde.
- For formaldehyde, the limit is .75ppm
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
A condition in which the vital signs of life are feebly maintained and there is a waxy rigidity of the body.
The increase in size of an organ or part due to the excessive but regulated increase in the number of its cells.
Distension of the pelvis and calyces of one or both kidneys with urine as a result of obstruction.
Abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluids in the ventricles of the brain.
Condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in the blood.
Established by drawing a line which connects the two points where the pectoralis major and the latissimus dorsi muscles blend into the arm.
Lateral Boundary (Axillary Space)