Relaxation phase of the heart action, or beat.
Decomposition of proteins by enzymes or aerobic bacteria.
A specific antibody acting destructively upon cells and tissues.
Antemortem and/or postmortem settling of blood and/or other fluids to dependent portions of the body.
Positive intravascular pressure causing passage of embalming solution through the capillary causing passage of embalming fluid from an intravascular to a wall to diffuse with the interstitial fluids; extravascular position.
A kind of ignis fatuus (glow) supposed to forbode death.
To force a fluid though (an organ or tissue), especially by way of the blood vessels; injection during vascular (arterial) embalming.
A type of arterial fluid which contains inactive dyes that will not impart a color change upon the body tissues of the deceased.
Non-Cosmetic Fluid (Passive Dye)
A solution having a lesser concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared.
A poisonous substance of plant, animal, bacterial or fungal origin.
Separation of compounds into simples substances by the action of microbial and/or autolytic enzymes.
An agent used to remove chemical constituents from municipal water supplies that could interfere with drainage and preservation.
Noise made by a moribund person caused by air passing through a residue of mucous in the trachea and posterior oral cavity.
Abnormal accumulation of fluids in tissue or body cavities.
The passage of solvent from a solution of lesser to one of greater solute concentration when the two solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane.
A chemical for purposes other than preservation and disinfection.
Organic compound found in plants and animals; can be broken down into amino acids.
A preparation aid used in mouth closure. It is inserted into a needle injector and forced into the mandible and maxilla.
An official of a local community who holds inquests concerning sudden, violent, and unexplained deaths.
Chemicals which kill or render incapible of reproducing disease causing microorganisms.
An amorphus, nonvolitile solid or soft side substance, a natural exudation from plants any of a class of solid or soft organic compounds of natural or synthetic origin.
Between the cells of a structure.
A mechanical device used to impel specially designed metal pins into bone.
The semi-convulsive twitches which often occur before death.
A microorganism that prefers an environment devoid of oxygen, but has adapted so that it can live and grow in the presence of oxygen.
As related to decomposition, the conversion of fatty tissues of the body into a soapy waxy substance called adipocere or grave wax.
(Process of Soap Formation)
The substance that is dissolved in a solution.
The non-protein portion of hemoglobin; the red pigment of the hemoglobin.
A solution having a greater concentration of dissolved soute than the solution to which it is compared.
Procedures that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogen hazard from the workplace such as: sharps disposal contain, self sheathing needles.
A liquid holding another substance in solution.
A condition in which the muscles become rigidly fixed, the body becomes pale and cold, pulse and respiration are feeble.
Sharply pointed surgical instrument used in cavity embalming to aspirate the cavities and inject cavity fluid. This may also be used for supplemental hypodermic embalming.
A luminous appearance like a candle flame, superstitiously thought to prestage death.
A process to promote and establish conditions which minimize or eliminate biohazards.
The direct contact of body tissues with embalming chemicals.
Drug-induced edema wherein the excess fluid is located within the cell. Upon palpation, there is no noticeable depression.
Inactivation or removal of microbial toxins, as well as of living microbial pathogens themselves.
The red respiratory portion of the red blood cells; iron containing pigment of red blood cells functioning to carry oxygen to the cells.
Chemicals which inactivate saprophytic bacteria, render unsuitable for nutrition the media upon decomposition which such bacteria thrive, and which will arrest by altering enzymes and lysins of the body as well as coverting the decomposable tissue to a form less susceptible to decomposition.
An evaluation of exposures that are time-weighted over an established period. It allows the exposure levels to be averaged generally over an eight-hour time period.
Time Weighted Average (TWA)
Group of chemicals used in addition to vascular (arterial) and cavity embalming fluids. Includes, but is not limited to:
- Hardening compounds
- Preservative powders
- Sealing agents
- Mold preventative agents
- Pack application agents
Building blocks of which proteins are constructed, and the end products of protein digestion or hydrolysis.
- Basic Formula: NH2-CHR-COOH
- An amino group, an alpha carbon, any aliphatic or aromatic radical, and a carboxyl group.
Legal limits established by OSHA to which workers can be exposed continuously for a short period of time without damage or injury.
- Exposures should not be for more than 15 minutes and not repeated more than 4 times per work day.
Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)
Transparent part of the tunic of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light into the interior.
The movement of the arterial solution from the point of injection through the blood vascular system.
It its broadest sense, refers to the moistening, and softening, of any tissue decomposing in a liquid medium.
An agonal or postmortem redistribution of host microflora on a hostwide basis.
The injection of a specialized chemical prior to the injection of a routine arterial chemical.
The destruction and/or inhibition of most pathogenic organisms and their products in or on the body.
Removal of particles (liquid or solid) from a solution, as it passes through a membrane or other partial barrier.
Rendered thoroughly dry, exhausted of moisture.
Loss of moisture from body tissue which may occur antemortem or postmortem.
- Antemortem causes: Febril disease, diarrhea or ernesis, postmortem injection of embalming solution or through absorption by the air.
Injection that results in the distribution of embalming fluid primarily to the body surface, with little preservation and disinfection of deeper tissues.
Extravascular movement of preservative fluids by gravitational force to the dependent areas of the body.
Mucous membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the white portion of the eye.
An organic compound containing nitrogen; any compounds formed from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by organic radicals.
- General Formula for the primary: R-NH2
Injection of embalming chemicals directly into the tissues through the use of a syringe and needle or trocar.
The act or instance of forcing a fluid into the vascular system or directly into tissues.
Embalming instrument used to hypodermically inject areas of the body with embalming chemicals.
Hypo Valve Trocar (Parietal Needle)
Postmortem, intravascular, red-blue discoloration resulting from hypostasis of blood. It can usually be cleared via arterial injection and drainage.
(Cadaveric Lividity, Postmortem Lividity)
Soft, whiteish, crumbly or greasy material that forms upon the postmortem hydrolysis and hydrogenation of body fats.
Adipocere (Grave Wax)
Destruction of red blood cells that liberates hemoglobin.
Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances able ot pass through a semi-permeable membrane.
- The size of the solute particles is less than one nanometer.
Weakening of the embalming solution by the fluids in the body, both vascular and interstitial.
The white of the eyeball.
Within a cell or cells.
The property of certain cells of becoming fluid when shaken, and then becoming solid again.
Supplemental fluids used as a coinjection to draw excess moisture out of edematous/dropsy bodies.
- Work by using the principal of osmosis
- Are hypertonic
- Work best when injected sectionally.
- Excess use may result in excess dehydration, wrinkling and tissues turning dark.
Organelle that exists within a cell, but separates from the cell.
- Contains hydrolytic enzymes that break down proteins and certain carbohydrates.
Controls that reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the manner in which a task is performed.
- Prohibiting the recapping of needles.
- Not allowing blood splatter or aerosolization of blood while draining during the embalming process.
Work Practice Controls
The movement of the arterial solution through the capillaries into the intercellular spaces, from an intravascular to an extravascular position.
Edema in the body appendages, trunk, and/or head as contrasted with edema of the body cavities.
A general term for the solidifaction of a solution into a gelatinous mass.
A specific form of agglutination
The process of taking in, as in a colored object which takes in certain rays of light and reflects other rays giving the object its recognizable color.
- E.g., An apple is called red if the red rays are reflected and the other rays in the light are taken in.
Assimilation of gas, vapor, or dissolved matter by the surface of a solid or liquid.
An official elected or appointed to investigate suspicious or unnatural death.
Retards the natural postmortem tendency of blood to become more viscous or prevents adverse reactions between blood and other embalming chemicals.
An influential person in medical embalming who is known as the "Father of Embalming."
Ruysch, Frederick (1665-1717)
Liquid containing dissolved substance.
Decomposition of proteins by the action of enzymes from anaerobic bacteria.
Drawing together, or a contraction, of gells which results in the giving off of water.
Condition in which interstitial spaces contain such excessive amounts of fluid that the skin remains depressed after palpation.
Severe generalized edema.
Any substance that imperils health of life when absorbed into the body.
Absorption of the fluid portion of blood by the tissues after death reulting in postmortem edema.
The dilution attained as the embalming solution is mixed in the embalming machine.
A special vascular fluid with special bleaching and coloring qualities of use on bodies with jaundice; usually low formaldehyde content.
The maximum legal limits established by OSHA for regulated substances.
- These are based on employee exposure that are time-weighted over an eight-hour work shift.
- When these limits are exceeded, employers must take proper steps to reduce employee exposure for Formaldehyde.
- Formaldehyde has a .75ppm limit.
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
Extravascular color change that occurs when heme, released by hemolysis of red blood cells, seeps through the vessel wall and into the body tissues.
Postmortem Stain (Leaking)
An influential person in medical embalming who is regarded as the "Father of Modern Embalming," and the "Father of Embalming in the United States." (American)
Holmes, Dr. Thomas (1817-1900)
Embalming fluid that contains dyes and coloring agents intended to restore a more natural skin tone through the embalming process.
Inner lining of the eye that receives the images formed by the lens and transmits those images to the brain through the optic nerve.
Contraction phase of the heart action, or beat.
Chemical that increases the ability of embalmed tissue to retain moisture.
The injection of a specialized chemical in conjunction with the routine arterial chemical.
An organism that prefers an oxygen environment, but is capable of living and growing it its absence.
Separation of substances in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane.
Dialysis (Selective Diffusion)
Resins combined with oil; a fragrant, resinous, oily exudate from various trees and plants.
The substance acted upon (protein, fat carbohydrate) by the action of an enzyme in the living organism, or embalming chemicals in perserving the dead body.