Part 2- Embalming Process Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Part 2- Embalming Process Deck (58):

  • Open thoracic, abdominal, pubic and cranial cavities.
  • Remove any gauze packings or any foreign material from the cavities (instruments)
  • Remove viscera and put into viscera bucket
  • Aspirate cavities and wash remains with warm, soapy water.
  • Inject the lower extremeties first
  • Inject the arms

Autopsies or Postmortem Examinations


  • Open viscera with long scissors or long blanded knife (bistoury knife).
  • Pour carefully any liquid from viscera into aspiration sink.
  • Pour 1-3 bottles of cavity fluid over viscera, be sure to mix fluid and viscera thoroughly, then cover bucket.
    • If brain is left in the body, then it should be included with the viscera for treatment.

Remove Viscera and put into viscera bucket


Prepare solution in machine and connect "Y" connection with two cannula tubes.

Aspirate all three cavities and wash remains with warm, soapy water.


  • Locate the bifurcation of the common iliacs just to the left of the lower spine at the termination of the aorta.
  • Put a cannula in each branch of the "Y" into the right and left external iliacs.
  • Be sure the internal branch of the common iliacs is tied or clamped off. (if not, fluid will leak into the pubic cavity)
  • Locate the bifurcation of the common iliac veins just to the right of the lower spine and at the termination of the inferior vena cava.
  • After observing a substantial amount of fluid in the drainage, clamp or tie off the vein; this will allow the penetration of fluid into the surface tissue. Create back pressure.
  • Aspirate cavity after you are sure the legs are throughly embalmed.

Inject the lower extremities first


Pose the features at the same time you inject the lower extremeties.

If you have more than one person


  • If possible, inject the arms from inside the thoracic cavity either from the arch of the aorta if intact or the subclavian arteries.

Arteries used for injecting the upper extremties for autopsied bodies.


  • Be sure you extend the arms outward and open the hands and flex the fingers to stimulate circulation.
  • Encourage drainage by massage (toward the heart).
  • After observing a substantial amount of fluid in the drainage, clamp or tie off the axillary or subclavian vein. This will allow penetration of fluid into the surface tissue (mottling)

Injection of the arms


Medical Examiner (Medico-legal) or hospital

Types of Autopsies


Concerned with the cause of death.

Both hospital and medical examiner autopsies


Concerned with the manner of death.

Medical Examiner Autopsies (Medico-legal)


Does not need permission for an autopsy.

Medical Examiner


  • Natural
  • Homicide
  • Accident
  • Suicide
  • Other
  • Undetermined

Manner of Death


Forces arterial solution into the tissues and cells.

Back Pressure


An embalming instrument which is a one piece scalpel used for making incisions and excisions.



Inject the head from these arteries.

Left and Right Common Carotid Arteries


Never inject the head ______.



Inject this side of the head first.



Never inject the head with more than the ______ amount of pressure or rate of flow.



Before this, throughly cream the forhead; open cranial incision; remove the calvarium; have two small hemostats ready to clamp off the severed ends of the internal carotid arteries.

Posing Features


The dome-like superior portion of the cranium; that portion removed during cranial autopsy.



Start injection of the head only after _______.

Features are posed


After you see fluid and only fluid leaking from the severed ends of the internal carotid arteries, ___________.

  • These severed ends are found in the area desginated as the sella turcica, in the center and at the base of the cranial cavity.

Clamp them off with small hemostats


In the center and at the base of the cranial cavity.

Sella Turcica


Have hemostats read to clamp off any leakage from the severed branches of the carotid arteries.

Remain aleart for leakage in the neck along the channel of the carotid arteries.


Often because of the inexcusable carelessness of certain ___________, these arteries are mutilated beyond use and it comes necessary to hypodermically inject the face with fluid.



Because of this, it becomes necessary to hypodermically preserve the sidewalls and flaps of both the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

  • Mix 1-2 gallons of strong solution in embalming maching.
  • Proportionally keep your pressure higher than your rate of flow; make these adjustments before embalming.

The descending aorta is often removed


Connect this or a small trocar to pliable rubber embalming machine hose; be sure your instrument is sharp.

Hypo-valve Trocar (parietal needle)


The person who invented the trocar.



The hypo valve trocar has a button and is smaller in size.

Difference between a trocar and a parietal needle


Embalming instrument used to hypodermically inject areas of the body with embalming chemicals.

Parietal Needle (Hypo-valve Trocar)


Inject all areas that ___________. Do not forget to inject shoulder area, back side walls, front flaps, and reproductive organs.

Did not recieve fluid from arterial injection


At this time, clean maching by running 6 gallons of water through it; clean all instruments and put them away. Leave water in machine.

After Injection


Aspirate or _____ out all cavities.



Use this kind of needle with double strand suture cord to suture abdominal, pubic and thoracic cavity.

"S" Shaped Needle


Liberally sprinkle _________ throughout the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavity.

Hardening Compound


Fill cavities with ______ cotton or saw dust or return preserved viscera to cavity.



Suture the sternum back onto the rib cage, and again sprinkle this over the entire area.

Hardening Compound


Suture the three flaps together and then suture the abdomen down using a _____ stitch.



After the abdomen has been sutured downward with a baseball stitch, suture this from shoulder to shoulder with the baseball stitch.

The Throax


If this is not done if the trachea has been removed, the result will be a flat neck.

Cotton and hardening compound is put in place


This kind of needle is used to suture the cranial cavity.

Half Moon Needle (J-Shaped)


  • Dry out interior of cranium, cover base of skull with quick drying incision sealer.
  • Put hardening compound and cotton in cranial cavity, then replace calvarium after it has been saturated with hardening compound.
  • After the calvarium is firmly secured, place incision putty over the line of bone separation.
  • Return skin flaps to normal position
  • Suture the flaps together (with thin double strand suture).

Replacing the Calvarium


Be sure the foramen magnum is tightly packed.

This prevents leaks


  • Wire it on after drilling a series of holes or use metal calvarium clamps (more secure).
  • Anchor the ligature cord at 3 points.

Methods of attaching calvarium


  1. Behind the right ear
  2. Behind the left ear
  3. At the center of posterior flap

3 points of anchoring the ligature to attach calvarium


  • Plaster of paris
  • Needle Injector
  • Cotton and sealer

Less successful methods of attaching the calvarium


When suturing the flaps of a cranial autopsy, always do this.

Start from the right ear and suture toward the left ear.


  • Make a collection of small, curved hair combs often used by elderly women. These combs can be placed along the line of the incision to keep the average length of hair out of the way.
  • Superior method is to use spring loaded hair clips along incision line to keep hair out of the way.

In cases of long hair, tie the hair above and below the incision in a pony tail.


  • Always suture this incision before you injet any part of the body.
  • Suture with either a baseball stitch or a continuous glover stitch (roll stitch).
    • Be careful not to distort facial features
  • If you are alone, roll body over, put chin on head rest to keep face from hitting the table, then suture the incision. (in the prone position)

Spinal Autopsy


  • Wash all remains and shampoo the hair.
  • Dry the remains, especially the hair.
  • Put on the necessary plastic goods
  • Reposition the remains with special attention to the head and hands.

Completion of the embalming


Positioned straight or slightly to the right, hair is combed.

Position of the head


Packed with cotton to even them out.

Anterior Nares


Should be closed.

Inner Canthus


Should be combed and neatly organized.



Cotton behind these so they are straight and so that jewelry can be visible when placed on them.

Ear Lobes


Left over right or at the sides of the body. Figers are together, not spread apart.



Positioned straight (even the parts that you cannot see).

The body


The first African American Embalmer

Prince Gyere

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