The most significant muscles of the head.
- Insert into the skin or other muscles instead of bone.
Mucles of Facial Expression
Draws the corners of the mouth outward and upward, has often been referred to as the "similing muscle."
Involved in puckering the lips, and is sometimes called the "kissing muscle."
Helps puff the cheeks out and has consequently been called the "trumpters muscle."
Helps raise the eyebrows.
Draws the corners of the mouth laterally as in tension, or "false smiling."
Pulls the lower lip down and back, as in a look of horror.
- Zygomaticus Major
- Orbicularis Oris
Muscles of Facial Expression
Have to do with chewing or grinding food.
- Internal (medial) pterygoid
- External (lateral) pteygoid
Muscles of Mastication
Named because it is attached to the temporal bone.
Comes from the Greek for "chewer."
Named for one of their attachments, which is the wing-shaped portion of the sphenoid bone.
Internal and External Pteygoid Muscles
The top of the head is covered by a combination of two muscles plus a tendonous sheet of tissue over the top of the cranium.
- Galea aponeurotica
This term is used to refer to any broad, flat tendon in the body.
An important muscle of the neck area. Important for its action of moving the head and for the fact that the distance between the lateral margins of the two of these muscles marks the widest part of the neck.
Located on the front of the neck region. It outlines the vicinity in which the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein are located.
Anterior Cervical Triangle
The medline of the neck.
Medial Boundary of The Anterior Cervical Triangle
The inferior margin of the mandible.
Superior Boundary of The Anterior Cervical Triangle
The anterior border of the sternocleidomastoideus.
Lateral Boundary of The Anterior Cervical Triangle
- Pectoralis Major
- Internal and External Intercostals
- Phrenic Muscle (Diaphragm)
- Rectus Abdominus
- External and Internal Oblique
- Psoas Major
- Latissimus Dorsi
- Erector Spinae
Located in the anterior chest area and is involved in moving the upper arm.
- Comes from the Latin word for "breast"
"Betwen the ribs." Important for their involvement in the expansion and contraction of the thoracic area which occurs during breathing.
Internal and External Intercostals
Extremely important in the breathing process. A dome-shaped sheet of muscle which forms the floor of the throacic cavity, or the roof of the abdominal cavity.
- During Breathing: Flattens out and enlarges the size of the thoracic cavity, which helps draw air into the lungs.
Phrenic Muscle (Diaphragm)
- Esophageal Orifice
- Vena Caval Orifice
- Aortic Orifice
Openings in the Diaphragm
The center of the diaphragm is composed of this sheet of tendon.
These muscles tend to be arranged in several layers, with the muscle fibers of each layer running at different angles.
- This makes for a strong, supportive structure to enclose and protect the abdominal organs.
Often categorized by their general location:
- Posterior Abdomen
Abdominal Muscle Categories
One of the anteromedial muscles and runs from the sternum and rib cage straight down to the pubic bone.
Run at angles down the anterior lateral part of the abdomen, with the transverse muscles underneath them.
External and Internal Oblique
An important posterior abdominal muscle. Runs from the lumbar vertebrae down to the femur. Involved with moving the femur and serves as an anatomical guide along the medial border for the external iliac artery and vein.
Comes from the latin word for "Trapezoid Shaped." This is located in the upper back and actually runs from the back of the occipital bone, down the thoracic vertebrae, and over to the acromion of the scapula.
The superior lateral projection of the scapula.
comes from the Lain word for "wide" and "back." A large, lower back muscle, which is attached to the humerus and is involved in its movement.
A group of muscles in the back, which run vertically from thee lower back area up to the more superior vertebrae and ribs. Primarily involved with movement of the vertebral column and help keep the spine in an erect position.
- Teres Major Muscle
- Biceps Brachii
- Triceps Brachii
- Felxor Carpi Radialis
- Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
- Flexor Digitorium Superficialis
Upper Extremity and Shoulder Muscles
A large, trianglur shaped muscle making up most of the mass of the shoulder area. Mainly involved in abduction of the humerus.
Runs from the scapula to the upper part of the humerus. Involved in movements of the upper arm.
- Serves as the point at which the axillary artery terminates and becomes the brachial artery.
Teres Major Muscle
Located in the upper arm area. Named for it's point of attachment. Moves the arm and serves as the anatomical guide for the axillary artery, which is located just behind it's medial border.
Flexors of the anterior surface of the elbow joint.
Brachialis and Biceps Brachii
Located on the back of the humerus and extends the elbow joint.
Located in the superior lateral part of the forearm and assists the brachialis and the biceps brachii muscles in flexing the forearm.
Act to flex the wrist. The tendons of these muscles, in the wrist area, serve as important anatomical guides in locating the radial and ulnar arteries, which lie just lateral to the respective tendons.
Flexor Carpi Radialis and Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Has to do with flexing the digits (fingers).
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
- Gluteus Maximus
- Adductor Longus
- Adductor Magnus
- Tibialis Anterior
Muscles of The Lower Extremities
Makes up the bulk of the buttocks area, and is important for its action of extending the thigh.
Includes the rectus femoris and the three vastus muscles. Serve to extend the lower leg at the knee joint.
On the anterior surface of the thigh. A superficial, strap-like muscle running obliquely across the thigh to the inner side of the knee area.
- Lateral Boundary of the Femoral Triangle
Serves as an important anatomical guide in locating the femoral vessels, which run through the center of this triangular area.
Superior Boundary of the femoral triangle.
Medial boundary of the femoral triangle.
Later border of the adductor longus muscle.
Lateral boundary of the femoral triangle.
Medial border of the Sartorius Muscle
On the medial side of the thigh. This is the medial boundary of the femoral trangle.
Contains a canal-like opening, called the adductor canal (Hunter's canal), through which the femoral vessels and nerves pass. This openeing also serves as the point at which the femoral artery terminates and becomes known as the popliteal.
These muscles flex the lower leg.
- Biceps femoris
Muscles of the Hamstrings
At the base of the popliteal space, running at an angle from the borrom of the femur to the top of the tibia.
- The inferior border of this muscle marks the point at which the popliteal artery termines by bifurcating into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
Located in the front of the leg.
Muscles in the posterior lower leg, or calf area. Both of these attach to the hell bone (calcaneus). Have to do with extending the foot, thus allowing you to "stand on your toes."
Gastrocnemius And Soleus Muscles
The strong tendon that connects the gastrocnemius to the soleus muscles.
Cancaneal Tendon (Achilles Tendon)