Lecture notes 3- MORS 113 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture notes 3- MORS 113 Deck (73):

The type of casket and local custom will determine how these are positioned.

Arms and Hands


Should be kept as close to the sides of the body as possible.



The hands can be _______.

  • Mutilation is the exception



Gloves may be necessary. 

Extreme mutilation of the hands


Always wrap the hands and fingers with this at the conclusion of the embalming process to prevent hand and finger spreading. You can also use a rubber band around the thumb and index finger, but this is not advisible when shipping to other funeral homes.



Placing the hands in this position is also an option. The hands are cupped and placed on the stomach.

Lesiurely Position


The distance from the hand to the throw should be _____ to that from the head to the casket flange.



Be sure these are straight and close together; if necessary, tie them together at the knees immediately after embalming. You could also use a head block to achieve this.

Positioning the Legs


The head may be tilted no more than ___ degrees to the right.



Should not be too high in the air or too low on the chest, with the shoulders even with the casket's top body flange (Rim of casket).



Check these for leakage after embalming and check the earlobes and nostrils for straightness and roundness.

The Carotid Incisions


The chin should be slightly elevated on obese persons to:

Make the neck appear thinner


Body should be centered utilizing the head panel- the roll (cove or puffing) acting as a picture frame.

Perfection Half Couch Casket


At no time should a _____ be placed under the deceased's shoulders because the shoulders become too accentuated especially with the obese.

  • Place prosthesis- positioning device- under the shoulder.
  • You can use empty embalming bottles for this purpose, but this raises problems with disinternment.



Should be positioned above the shoulders with the head perfectly centered. The bottom of this should cover the top of the shoulders.

The Pillow


Prepare face and hands with massage cream ______ injection to prevent dehydration.

  • Also acts as a base for massage.

Prior to


Pack all _____ _____ as necessary, then use protective garments.

  • I.e., the nostrils: fly larve can live on embalmed tissue so it may be best to pack them with cotton.

External Orifices


Bathe the entire body after embalming. Use tepid water (never hot_ and a quality liquid _____ _____.

Antiseptic Soap


Be sure that fingernails are properly ________.



For this purpose, always use a recent photo of the deceased.

  • Driver's license
  • State ID
  • Facebook

Hair properly cut and styled


Prepare to dress and casket the deceased.

Final step in positioning the body


  • Gravity Method
  • The bulb syringe method
  • Manual injection, hand pump and jug method
  • The air pressure machines
    • Mechanical machine (Eckel's)
    • Hydraulic machine (Moore)
    • Compressed air canister (CO2 canister, metallic cylinder)
  • Motorized centrifugal forced pump machine
  • Non corrosive polyethylene sprayer tank

Methods of Injection and Creating Fluid Pressure


  • Dates back to 1500AD - early anatomists
  • Consists of a glass bottle (gravity bottle or percolator), having a 2-4qt capacity, attached to a mobile stand wiht a height adjustor. Attached to the percolator is a standard valentine tube of soft rubber, one end having a cannula by a link made of pure latex, and the other having a funnel which connects it to the percolator.

Gravity Method


Using the gravity method, for each ____ foot of elevation of the percolator, the pressure of injection increases by .434 pounds.

  • 1/2 lb of pressure per foot from the height of the column of liquid to the point of injection.
  • 1lb of pressure for each 28 inches of height from the column of liquid to the point of injection.



  • It creates a constant flow of arterial fluid solution.
  • The low cost of equipment
  • Requires no mechanical apparatus
  • Requires no electricity

Advantages of the Gravity Method


  • Affords limited pressure range due to the limited height you can achieve from the mobile stand.
  • There is a small unit of volume, usually no more than one gallon.
  • It is inconvenient to fill the percolator.

Disadvantages of the Gravity Method


  • The simplest possible form of injection apparatus
  • Consists of a bulb type syringe made of rubber and attached to or interinjected into a valentine tube.
  • Vavles are provided in the syringe to prevent regurgitation of the arterial fluid solution when the bulb is squeezed.
  • Was an evolutionary improvement over gravitation.
  • It is often used in combination with the gravitation method.

Bulb Syringe Method


  • Convenient and easy to use.
  • Inexpensive to purchase and operate (no electricity).
  • Will develop some variation in the pressure range.
  • Requires no electricity

Advantages of the Bulb Syringe Method


  • Rubber deterioates rapidly and valves fail.
  • Requires the constant use of one hand whic hinders the embalmer's activity.
  • Creates a variable pressure with an unknown maximum.

Disadvantages of the Bulb Syringe Method


  • Popular prior to 1930
  • Consists of a hand operated double action pneumatic pump, rubber or plastic tubing, a gooseneck having two holes inserted into either a one gallon glass jug or a heavy duty glass jar.
  • For safety, always keep the jug or jar in a container because of the danger of explosion during injection and implosion during aspiration.

Manual Injection, hand pump and jug method


That air is pumped into the jug or jar which forces the fluid out through an arterial tube and into the arterial system (a displacement principal).

  • The process can be reversed for aspiration by reversing the pump.

Principal of the Operation of the Manual Injection (Hand pump and jug method)


  • Creates a wide pressure range
  • Can be used as a method of both injection and aspiration. Will create a vacuum for aspiration.
  • It is sensitive to the internal vascular pressures. Increased resistance in vascular system may be able to be detected in the operator's thumb.
  • Requires no electricity.

Advantages of the Manual Injection (hand pump and jug method)


  • Inconvenient when refilling the container
  • Requires the constant use of one hand, often two, like the bulb syringe method.
  • Has no pressure gague or regulator, thus a great irregularity of pressure with an unknown maximum.
  • Because the system produces a terrific amount of pressure. swelling of the neck and facial features is common.
  • There is the danger of implosion or explosion.

Disadvantages of the Manual Injection (Hand pump and jug method)


  • Popular from 1930-1950
  • Any mechanical apparatus in which a column of air is forced under pressure into a fluid chamber, displacing the fluid solution and moving it out into the arterial system.
  • Improvement on the hand pump and jug method, buy basically it involves the same principal.

The Air Pressure Machine


  1. Mechanical Machine (Eckel's embalming machine)
  2. Hydraulic Machine (Moore Embalming Machine)
  3. The compressed air cansiter, the CO2 canister, or metallic cylinder

Three Types of Air Pressure Machines


  • The mechanical and hydraulic machines can both inject and aspirate. 
  • They are convenient because they free the embalmer's hands to do more important tasks.
  • They develop a wise pressure range to overcome vascular obstructions.
  • They have the ability to maintain a constant pressure and they have pressure gauges and regulators for safety reasons.

Advantages of Air Pressure Machines


Was the forerunner of the electric aspirator.

Mechanical Air Pressure Machine


Has a hydro-aspirator type attachment.

Hydraulic machine


  • They are extremely dangerous because many employ glass fluid containers which may explode during injection and implode during aspiration. It is highly recommended that a metal bottle guard or rubber trash can be used with these machines.
  • They usually have small unit injection volumes, seldom more than one gallon.
  • They are inconvient to refill
  • They require frequent servicing.
  • They may cause the features to swell if any air is forced into the vascular system (subcutaneous emphysema)
  • They are very noisy.

Disadvantages of Air Pressure Machines


This air pressure machine cannot aspirate; it cannot create a vacuum.

Compressed air canister, CO2 canister, metallic cylinder


  • Popular since 1945 
  • Air pressure machines eventually replaced by the development of the motorized fluid pump apparatus, which provides flexibility of pressure range, ease of control and a maximum uniformity of pressure, became the difference.
  • Classified as either pulsating or non pulsating.

Motorized Centrifugal Forced Pump Machine (Modern Embalming Machine)


Any force pump that can imitate the action of the human heart by vibrating the fluid through the vascular system by mechanical fluctuation of the pressure.



Any force pump that will maintain a constant pressure and a constant rate of flow without a fluctuation.



A belt driven machine containing a 204 gallon tank with at least a rate of flow and a pressure control and needing of auxillary equipment.

Description of Motorized Centrifugal Force Machine (Modern Embalming Machine)


  • It is the most reliable method of injection used today.
  • No subordinate equipment is necessary, it is a self-contained unit.
  • It has a high-pressure range- some as high as 200lbs
  • It has a large unit volume, eliminating the need to constantly refill the machine. Some have as large as a 4 gallon tank.
  • It will maintain a constant rate or flow and pressure.

Advantages of the Motorized Centrifugal Force Machine (Modern Embalming Machine)


Shell embalming can result from this.

High Pressure


  1. Need frequent servicing
  2. It requires the constant attention of the embalmer

Disadvantages of the Motorized Centrifugal Force Machine (Modern Embalming Machine)


  • Broken belts
  • Leaky base plate gaskets
  • Corroded or oxidized base plates
  • The motor burns up
  • The pump burns up
  • The glass tank breaks when carried improperly

Motorized Centrifugal Force Machine (Modern Embalming Machine)- Needs Frequent Servicing


  • Facial feature swelling
  • If allowed to run when the tank is empty, the motor and the pump will burn up.
  • Never leave the tank dry; when you are finished injecting, run at least 2-3 tanks of clean water through the machine and leave at least 1 quart of water in the tank.
    • To prevent oxidation of the base plate
    • To keep the base plate gasket moist in order to prevent dry rotting and leaky conditions.

Motorized Centrifugal Force Machine (Modern Embalming Machine)- Requires constant attention of the emblamer.


Self-contained, soft rubber manual pump designed to create pressure to deliver fluid as it passes through one-way valves located within the bulb. It is used only to deliver fluids. it cannot be used for aspiration.

Bulb Syringe


An embalming instrument which is connected to a bottle of cavity fluid to aid in injecting the cavity fluid into the various cavities of the body.

Cavity Injector


Embalming machine that uses an electrical pump to create pressure either pulsating or non-pulsating.

Centrifugal Force Machine (Modern Embalming Machine)


A methid if creating injection pressure in which a bulb syringe is built into the tubing of the gravity percolator.

Combination gravity method- bulb syringe


A type of air pressure apparatus where air or CO2 is pump from tanks into a fluid chamber to create pressure.

Compressed Air or Gas, CO2 apparatus


Tubular instrument of varying diameter and shape, preferably with a plunger that is inserted into a vein to aid in drainage of blood and to restrict the exit of vascular embalming fluid.

Drain Tube


An embalming instrument which allows the removal of blood from the body without using the conventional drain tube.

Drainage Forceps


Preparation room equipment which is specifically designed for the dressing of the deceased.

Dressing Table


Preparation room equipment which may serve for both embalming and dressing of the deceased.

Combination Table


An electrically heated blade which may be used to dry moist tissue, reduce swollen tissue, and restore contour.

Electric Spatula


Preparation room equipment on which human remains are placed for the embalming procedure.

Embalming Table


Rubber stopper containing two tubes, one to create vacuum for pressure and the other to deliver fluid or achieve aspiration; possibly used in conjunction with a hand pump.



Apparatus used to inject arterial fluid during the vascular (arterial) phase of the embalming process; relies on gravity to create the pressure required to deliver the fluid (.434 lbs of pressure per one foot of elevation).

Gravity Injector


A method of creating injection pressure which consists of a gravity bottle with tubing attached, that is suspended at a desired distance above the point of injection.

Gravity Percolator (Gravity Bottle)


Instrument used to guide vein tubes into vessels.

Groove Director


Historical instrument resembling a large hypodermic syringe attached to a bottle apparatus; used to create either pressure for injection or vacuum for aspiration.

Hand Pump


Preparation room equipment used to hold tubing in place on the embalming table.

Hose Holder


Preparation room item used to inject embalming chemicals and tissue builder into the body tissues.

Hypodermic Needle and Syringe


Embalming instrument used to hypodermically inject areas of the body with embalming chemicals (very dangerous instrument).

Hypo Valve Trocar (Parietal Needle)


A type of air pressure apparatus which is a fluid power driven machine working by the force of a moving liquid.

Hydraulic Apparatus


Apparatus that is connected to the water supply; when the water is turned on, a suction is developed and is used to aspirate the contents of the body's cavities.



Injection of embalming chemicals directly into the tissues through the use of a syringe and needle or a trocar.

Hypodermic Embalming


The act or instance of forcing a fluid into the vascular system or directly into tissues.



A motorized injector used to create positive pressure as required in vascular embalming.

Pressure Embalming Machine

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