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Flashcards in Introduction Deck (45)
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1

Pathology

The precise study and diagnosis of disease

2

What are the 4 components of disease?

1. Cause/etiology
2. Pathogenesis
3. Morphologic changes
4. Clinical manifestations

3

What is the sonographers role?

1. Obtain information
2. Review lab data
3. Tailor to the exam

4

Why do you tailor to the exam?

In order to get the best information possible to answer the clinical question

5

What are 6 examples of optimizing tools?

1. Depth
2. Focal zone
3. Gain
4. Zoom
5. TGC
6. THI
- harmonics

6

When can you apply colour doppler?

On any abnormal mass

7

What is a benefit to power doppler?

It is more sensitive that colour doppler (motion sensitive)
- can use it when not much colour is shown

8

What do we look at first to determine if something is bad in a patient? (4)

1. Patient history
2. Age
3. Sex
4. Clinical findings

9

Lesion

General term describing any type of abnormality seen on imaging
- lump/bump on the skin or in a solid organ
- may be cystic or solid

10

Nodule

A small mass of rounded or irregular shape

11

Mass

An abnormal growth of tissue resulting from multiplication of cells

12

Where are nodules found? (4)

1. Within organ parenchyma
2. On tendons
3. On muscles
4. On vocal cords

13

Where are nodules found? (4)

1. Within organ parenchyma
2. On tendons
3. On muscles
4. On vocal cords

14

Can nodules be benign or cancerous?

Either

15

What are 2 synonyms for a mass?

1. Tumour
2. Neoplasia

16

What can a mass do?

It may push or displace surrounding tissue or vessels

17

What are 7 examples of tumour characterization terminology?

1. Consistency
2. Echogenicity
3. Echotexture
4. Contour
5. Mass effect/invading
6. Vascularity
7. Multiple/single

18

What are 3 examples of consistency?

1. Solid
2. Liquid
3. Mixed

19

Solid consistency

Might attenuate, or no enhancement

20

Liquid consistency

Posterior enhancement

21

Mixed consistency

Both might attenuate, or no enhancement and posterior enhancement

22

What are 4 examples of echogenicity?

1. Hypoechoic
2. Hyperechoic
3. Anechoic
4. Isoechoic

23

What are 2 examples of echotexture?

1. Homogenous
2. Heterogenous

24

What are 2 examples of contour?

1. Irregular
2. Smooth margins or well delineated

25

What are 2 examples of relation to adjacent organs or structures?

1. Mass effect
2. Invading

26

Mass effect

Pushing or displacing

27

Invading

Moving into another structure

28

When do you get shadowing typically?

With calcified structures

29

What can invading cause?

Clotting

30

What is another term for hypervascular?

Hyperemic