Flashcards in Lesson 1C (Part 1) Deck (30)
What is one of the most common malignant tumours?
Who is HCC more common in?
What are the causes of HCC? (4)
1. Alcoholic cirrhosis
2. Viral Hep B&C
3. Fatty liver-steatohepatitis-cirrhosis
4. Fungi and toxins in food
What are symptoms of hepatocellular carcinoma?
1. RUQ pain
2. Weight loss
3. Abdominal swelling
- ascites is present
What are 3 pathological forms of HCC?
1. Solitary tumor
2. Multiple nodules
3. Diffuse infiltration
What does HCC sometimes invade?
The portal vein
- 30-60% of cases
The condition is caused by occlusion of the hepatic veins that drain the liver
- is a very rare condition,
What is the sonographic appearance of HCC? (4)
1. Hypoechoic, complex or echogenic
2. Smaller nodules
3. Thin peripheral hypoechoic halo
- fibrous capsule
4. Becomes more complex over time
What other testings can be done for HCC? (4)
2. CT scan
What is a subtype of HCC?
Who are fibrolamellar carcinoma more common in? (2)
2. Young adults
What does fibrolamellar carcinoma coexist without?
A liver disease
What is recommended treatment for fibrolamellar carcinoma?
Surgical resection of the tumour
What is the sonographic appearance of fibrolamellar carcinoma? (2)
1. Echogenicity is variable
- central echogenic scar distinguishes it from hepatomas of HCC
Extremely rare malignant tumor
Who is more common to get hemagiosarcoma?
Adults 60-70 years of age
What is hemagiosarcoma associated with?
What is the sonographic appearance of hemagiosarcoma?
Large mass of mixed echogenicity
Rare malignant tumour of vascular origin
Who is more common to get hepatic epitheloid?
What are affected with hepatic epitheloid? (3)
1. Soft tissues
What is the sonographic appearance of hepatic epitheloid?
Multiple hypoechoic nodules
- large masses
Where are the most common primary tumours resulting in liver metastases from? (6)
What are 2 blood borne routes?
1. Hepatic artery
2. Portal vein
What do lymphatics spread through? (4)
Where do the tumour cells from the GI tract drain through to get to the liver?
What is the sonographic appearance of mets? (5)
1. Single or multifocal liver lesions
2. All with identical sonographic morphology
3. Diffuse liver involvement
- varied sized lesions
4. Geographic infiltration
5. Hypoechoic halo
- strongly associated with malignancy
What is strongly associated with malignancy?
What are common echogenic sonographic patterns of metastatic disease? (7)
1. GI tract
3. Vascular primaries
4. Islet cell carcinoma
7. Renal cell carcinoma