Lesson 1C (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 1C (Part 1) Deck (30)
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1

What is one of the most common malignant tumours?

Hepatocellular carcinoma
- HCC

2

Who is HCC more common in?

Men
- 5:1

3

What are the causes of HCC? (4)

1. Alcoholic cirrhosis
2. Viral Hep B&C
3. Fatty liver-steatohepatitis-cirrhosis
4. Fungi and toxins in food

4

What are symptoms of hepatocellular carcinoma?

1. RUQ pain
2. Weight loss
3. Abdominal swelling
- ascites is present

5

What are 3 pathological forms of HCC?

1. Solitary tumor
2. Multiple nodules
3. Diffuse infiltration

6

What does HCC sometimes invade?

The portal vein
- 30-60% of cases

7

Budd–Chiari syndrome

The condition is caused by occlusion of the hepatic veins that drain the liver
- is a very rare condition,

8

What is the sonographic appearance of HCC? (4)

1. Hypoechoic, complex or echogenic
2. Smaller nodules
3. Thin peripheral hypoechoic halo
- fibrous capsule
4. Becomes more complex over time

9

What other testings can be done for HCC? (4)

1. CEUS
2. CT scan
3. MRI
4. Doppler

10

What is a subtype of HCC?

Fibrolamellar carcinoma

11

Who are fibrolamellar carcinoma more common in? (2)

1. Adolescents
2. Young adults

12

What does fibrolamellar carcinoma coexist without?

A liver disease

13

What is recommended treatment for fibrolamellar carcinoma?

Surgical resection of the tumour

14

What is the sonographic appearance of fibrolamellar carcinoma? (2)

1. Echogenicity is variable
2. Calcification
- central echogenic scar distinguishes it from hepatomas of HCC

15

Hemagiosarcoma

Extremely rare malignant tumor

16

Who is more common to get hemagiosarcoma?

Adults 60-70 years of age

17

What is hemagiosarcoma associated with?

Carcinogens

18

What is the sonographic appearance of hemagiosarcoma?

Large mass of mixed echogenicity

19

Hepatic epitheloid

Rare malignant tumour of vascular origin

20

Who is more common to get hepatic epitheloid?

Adults

21

What are affected with hepatic epitheloid? (3)

1. Soft tissues
2. Lungs
3. Liver

22

What is the sonographic appearance of hepatic epitheloid?

Multiple hypoechoic nodules
- large masses

23

Where are the most common primary tumours resulting in liver metastases from? (6)

1. Gallbladder
2. Colon
3. Stomach
4. Pancreas
5. Breast
6. Lung

24

What are 2 blood borne routes?

1. Hepatic artery
2. Portal vein

25

What do lymphatics spread through? (4)

1. Stomach
2. Pancreas
3. Ovary
4. Uterus

26

Where do the tumour cells from the GI tract drain through to get to the liver?

Portal system

27

What is the sonographic appearance of mets? (5)

1. Single or multifocal liver lesions
2. All with identical sonographic morphology
3. Diffuse liver involvement
- varied sized lesions
4. Geographic infiltration
- rarely
5. Hypoechoic halo
- strongly associated with malignancy

28

What is strongly associated with malignancy?

Hypoechoic halo

29

What are common echogenic sonographic patterns of metastatic disease? (7)

1. GI tract
2. HCC
3. Vascular primaries
4. Islet cell carcinoma
5. Carcinoid
6. Choriocarcinoma
7. Renal cell carcinoma

30

What are common hypoechoic sonographic patterns of metastatic disease? (6)

1. Breast
2. Lung
3. Lymphoma
4. Esophagus
5. Stomach
6. Pancreas