Lesson 5A (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

Abdominal Pathology > Lesson 5A (Part 1) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lesson 5A (Part 1) Deck (32)
Loading flashcards...
1

Is the spleen intra or retroperitoneal?

Intraperitoneal

2

What part of the spleen is not intraperitoneal?

The hilum

3

Where is the spleen located? (quadrant, compared to diaphragm, kidney, stomach and pancreas = 5)

1. Left hypochondriac region with the superior aspect extending into the epigastric region
2. Inferior to the diaphragm
3. Anterior to the left kidney
4. Posterior and lateral to the stomach
5. Left lateral to the pancreas

4

What does the spleen do? (4)

1. Removes foreign material from the blood
2. Initiates an immune reaction
- resulting in production of antibodies and lymphocytes
3. Major destruction site of old red blood cells
- red blood cells are removed and hemoglobin is recycled
4. Reservoir for blood

5

What is the spleen most sensitive to?

Trauma

6

Why is the spleen most sensitive to trauma?

Due to its vasculature

7

What supplies blood to the spleen?

Splenic artery

8

What drains the spleen of blood?

Splenic vein

9

What makes up the main portal vein? (2)

1. Splenic vein
2. SMV

10

What happens to the splenic vein when portal hypertension occurs?

It may shunt blood directly into the left renal vein

11

What should you do if infarction is suspected on the spleen?

Apply colour doppler and evaluate for the presence of flow

12

What should the sagittal measurements be for the spleen?

13cm or less
- from tip to tip

13

What are normal serum levels in males?

4.6-6.2 million/mmm

14

What are normal serum levels in females?

4.2-5.4 million/mmm

15

What is elevation of serum levels associated with? (2)

1. Polycythemia vera
2. Severe diarrhea

16

What are decreased serum levels associated with? (4)

1. Internal bleeding
2. Hemolytic anemia
3. Hodgkin’s disease
4. Hemangiosarcomas

17

What does the spleen recycle Hb into?

Iron
- basis of bilirubin

18

What conditions is low Hb associated with? (4)

1. Cancer
2. Lymphoma
3. Cirrhosis
4. Internal bleeding

19

What do leukocytes do?

Defends the body from infection

20

What are elevated levels of leukocytes associated with? (4)

1. Infection
2. Leukemia
3. Hemorrhage
4. Malignancy

21

What are decreased levels of leukocytes associated with? (5)

1. Lymphoma
2. Leukemia
3. Viral infection
4. Hypersplenia
5. Diabetes mellitus

22

What is the biggest reason for elevation of leukocytes?

Infection

23

What are elevated levels of hematocrit associated with? (4)

1. Dehydration
2. Shock
3. Polycythemia vera-disorder of bone marrow
4. Infection

24

What are decreased levels of hematocrit associated with? (3)

1. Hemorrhage
2. Anemia
3. Leukemia

25

Hematocrit

% of RBCS in the blood

26

What are some indications for an exam of the spleen? (8)

1. Chronic liver disease
2. Infection
3. Leukocytosis
4. Leukopenia
5. Palpable mass
6. Abdominal pain
7. Fatigue
8. Trauma

27

What is another term for accessory spleen?

Splenule

28

Splenule

Is a common normal variant that is typically located in the splenics hilum
- congenital anomaly

29

What does accessory spleen look like? (3)

1. Similar echogenicity as the spleen
2. Small rounded masses < 5cm
3. May be confused with enlarged nodes

30

What modalities are used to confirm an accessory spleen? (2)

1. CT
2. MRI