Lesson 2B (Part 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 2B (Part 2) Deck (30)
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1

Cholangiocarcinoma

Is a cancerous (malignant) growth in one of the ducts that carries bile from the liver to the small intestine

2

What are the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma? (3)

1. Age
2. Recurrent biliary infections
3. Stone disease

3

How is cholangiocarcinoma classified?

Based on anatomic location in liver
- poor prognosis

4

What are the classifications of cholangiocarcinoma? (3)

1. Hilar
2. Distal
3. Intrahepatic

5

What is the most common classification of cholangiocarcinoma?

Hilar
- klatskins tumour

6

Where are klatskin tumours located?

In the porta hepatis

7

What does hilar cause?

Fibrous tissue formation

8

What are the symptoms of klatskins tumour? (4)

1. Jaundice
2. Pruritis
3. Increased LFTS
4. Nodes

9

What is the sonographic appearance of distal CBD cholangiocarcinoma?

1. Polypoid masses seen frequently
2. Expanding duc
3. Hypovascular

10

What is a sign of distal CBD cholangiocarcinoma?

Jaundice

11

What is the most effective treatment for distal CBD cholangiocarcinoma?

Surgical resection

12

What kind of involvement is common with distal CBD cholangiocarcinoma?

Nodal

13

What is the second most common primary malignancy of liver?

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

14

What makes intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma malignant? (2)

1. Increased numbers of liver cirrhosis
2. Hep C

15

What is the sonographic appearance of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma? (2)

1. Large solid hypovascular mass
2. Varying degrees of echogenicity

16

How is intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma differentiated from HCC?

By the presence of ductal obstruction

17

What does metastases to the liver also cause?

Ductal obstruction

18

What is the HIDA scan most often used for? (2)

1. To evaluate the gallbladder and the bile
- excreting function of your liver and to track the flow of bile from your liver into your small intestine
2. To measure the rate at which bile is released from your gallbladder (gallbladder ejection fraction)

19

What can HIDA diagnose? (5)

1. Gallbladder inflammation
- cholecystitis
2. Bile duct obstruction
3. Congenital abnormalities in the bile ducts
- such as biliary atresia
4. Postoperative complications
- such as bile leaks and fistulas
5. Assessment of liver transplant

20

Jaundice

A sign of one of the many possible underlying pathological processes that may occur

21

What is jaundice also known as?

Icterus

22

How does jaundice appear?

Appears as a yellowish pigmentation of the skin, whites of the eyes and other mucous membranes

23

What is one way jaundice is developed?

Hyperbilirubinemia

24

Hyperbilirubinemia

Increased levels of bilirubin in the blood and subsequently high levels of bilirubin are also in the extracellular fluid

25

How is bilirubin usually excreted? (2)

1. Bile
2. Urine

26

Where is jaundice typically seen? (3)

1. In liver diseases
- eg) hepatitis and cirrhosis
2. Liver/pancreatic cancer
3. Obstruction of the biliary system
- eg) stones in the CBD

27

What is bilirubin?

The product from the breakdown of hemoglobin in old red blood cells

28

How does jaundice get its yellowish appearance?

Through the leakage of bilirubin into tissues

29

What are symptoms of jaundice? (5)

1. Pruritis-itchiness
2. Fatigue
3. Abdominal pain
4. Weight loss
5. Vomiting

30

What are signs of jaundice? (3)

1. Yellow discoloration of skin and eyes
2. Fever
3. Pale stools, dark urine