Lesson 1B (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 1B (Part 1) Deck (30)
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1

Hepatitis

Inflammation of the liver

2

How many distinct types of hepatitis is there?

6
- A --> E/G

3

Serosuvey

Study of blood serum to find antibodies when exposed to hepatitis

4

What could happen if hepatitis is not treated?

It can be fatal

5

What can hepatitis lead to? (3)

1. Portal hypertension
2. Cirrhosis
3. Hepatocellular carcinoma
- HCC

6

How does Hep A spread?

Fecal-oral route

7

Who does Hep A affect?

The young
- put lots of stuff in their mouths

8

What kind of infection do you get from Hep A?

Acute

9

How is Hep B transmitted?

Parentally
- not oral

10

How can Hep B spread? (3)

1. Blood transfusions
2. Needle punctures
3. Sexual contact and at birth

11

Where is Hep B common? (3)

1. Asia
2. Africa
3. Greenland

12

Where is Hep C common? (2)

1. Italy
2. Mediterranean

13

How does Hep C spread?

Blood
- eg. sharing needles

14

What is Hep D dependent on for infectivity?

Hep B

15

Where is Hep D common?

1. Asia
2. Africa
3. Greenland

- same as Hep B

16

Who is most likely to get Hep D?

IV drug users

17

What are symptoms of viral hepatitis? (7)

1. Fatigue
2. Headache
3. Anorexia
4. Fever
5. Abdominal pain
6. Nausea
7. Vomiting

18

What is a sign of hepatitis?

Jaundice

19

What does acute hepatitis imply?

Recovery within 4 months

20

What is the common appearance of acute hepatitis? (3)

1. Hypoechoic
2. Echogenic periportal walls
3. Starry night sky

21

What does chronic hepatitis imply?

Abnormalities persisting beyond 6 months

22

What is the common appearance of chronic hepatitis? (2)

1. Hepatomegaly
2. Thickening of the GB wall

23

What can be harmful to the liver? (3)

1. Alcohol
2. Prescription medications
3. Poor diet

24

What are 4 disorders of metabolism?

1. Steatosis
- fatty liver
2. Glycogen storage disease
- neonatal (not from lifestyle)
3. Cirrhosis
- chronic liver disease
4. NASH
- non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

25

Can steatosis be reversible?

Yes
- this is done by correcting the situation

26

What is the most common cause of steatosis?

Obesity

27

Steatosis

Fatty liver
- triglycerides (fat) in the hepatocytes

28

What are other possible causes for steatosis? (10)

1. Excessive alcohol
- stimulates lipolysis
2. Severe hepatitis
3. Hyperlipidemia
- cholesterol
4. Diabetes
5. Excess corticosteroids
6. Pregnancy
7. Hyperalimentation
8. Obesity bypass surgery
9. Cystic fibrosis
10. Toxins

29

What is steatosis a significant precursor for?

Chronic diseases

30

What are the deposits of steatosis like? (2)

1. Focal
2. Diffuse