Flashcards in Lesson 1A (Part 2) Deck (30)
What are 4 normal variants of the liver?
1. Diaphragmatic Slips
2. Reidels lobe
3. Papillary Process Caudate
4. Long left lobe
Invagination of dome of the diaphragm that causes a pseudomass on the liver
- associated with diaphragmatic muscle bundles that attach the central tendon to the thoracic cage
- appearance changes with respiration
Is a tongue-like, inferior projection of the right lobe of the liver
Papillary Process Caudate
Represents a division of the inferior caudate lobe of the liver
What is an artifact of the the liver?
What is the mirror image artifact caused by?
What are the liver function tests? (4)
2. Alkaline phosphate
3. Alanine aminotransferase
4. Aspartate aminotransferase
A protein normally synthesized by the liver, yolk sac and GI tract of the fetus
What is a nonspecific marker for malignancy?
An enzyme produced primarily by liver, bone and placenta
Where is ALP excreted through?
The bile ducts
- want to look at the GB or the ducts to make sure they are not blocked
What is elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase associated with?
An enzyme found in high concentration in the liver and lower concentrations in the heart, muscle and kidneys
What does ALT remain elevated longer than?
What is ALT used to asses?
What are elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase associated with? (3)
3. Biliary obstruction
What is mild elevated levels of ALT associated with?
An enzyme present in many kinds of tissue that is released when cells are injured or damaged
What is AST used to diagnose?
Liver disease before jaundice occurs
What is elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase associated with? (3)
What is considered a normal clotting time?
What enzyme is produced by the liver to help with clotting?
What does the production of prothrombin depend on?
The amount of vitamin K
What is elevated levels of prothrombin associated with? (4)
3. Malabsorption of vitamin K
4. Clotting failure
What are decreased levels of prothrombin associated with? (5)
1. Subacute or acute cholecystitis
2. Internal biliary fistula
3. Carcinoma of the GB
4. Biliary duct injury
5. Prolonged extrahepatic biliary obstruction
Opening from one thing to another
What is an example of a fistula?
A white blood cell count above the normal range
What is leukocytosis a sign of?
Inflammatory or infection response
- includes parasitic infections