Lesson 1A (Part 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 1A (Part 2) Deck (30)
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1

What are 4 normal variants of the liver?

1. Diaphragmatic Slips
2. Reidels lobe
3. Papillary Process Caudate
4. Long left lobe

2

Diaphragmatic Slips

Invagination of dome of the diaphragm that causes a pseudomass on the liver
- associated with diaphragmatic muscle bundles that attach the central tendon to the thoracic cage
- appearance changes with respiration

3

Reidels lobe

Is a tongue-like, inferior projection of the right lobe of the liver

4

Papillary Process Caudate

Represents a division of the inferior caudate lobe of the liver

5

What is an artifact of the the liver?

Mirror image

6

What is the mirror image artifact caused by?

The diaphragm

7

What are the liver function tests? (4)

1. Alpha-fetoprotein
- AFP
2. Alkaline phosphate
- ALP
3. Alanine aminotransferase
- ALT
4. Aspartate aminotransferase
- AST

8

Alpha fetoprotein

A protein normally synthesized by the liver, yolk sac and GI tract of the fetus

9

What is a nonspecific marker for malignancy?

Alpha fetoprotein
- AFP

10

Alkaline phosphate

An enzyme produced primarily by liver, bone and placenta

11

Where is ALP excreted through?

The bile ducts
- want to look at the GB or the ducts to make sure they are not blocked

12

What is elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase associated with?

Obstructive jaundice

13

Alanine aminotransferase

An enzyme found in high concentration in the liver and lower concentrations in the heart, muscle and kidneys

14

What does ALT remain elevated longer than?

AST

15

What is ALT used to asses?

Jaundice

16

What are elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase associated with? (3)

1. Cirrhosis
2. Hepatitis
3. Biliary obstruction

17

What is mild elevated levels of ALT associated with?

Liver metastases

18

Aspartate aminotransferase

An enzyme present in many kinds of tissue that is released when cells are injured or damaged

19

What is AST used to diagnose?

Liver disease before jaundice occurs

20

What is elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase associated with? (3)

1. Cirrhosis
2. Hepatitis
3. Mononucleosis

21

What is considered a normal clotting time?

10-15 seconds

22

What enzyme is produced by the liver to help with clotting?

Prothrombin

23

What does the production of prothrombin depend on?

The amount of vitamin K

24

What is elevated levels of prothrombin associated with? (4)

1. Cirrhosis
2. Malignancy
3. Malabsorption of vitamin K
4. Clotting failure

25

What are decreased levels of prothrombin associated with? (5)

1. Subacute or acute cholecystitis
2. Internal biliary fistula
3. Carcinoma of the GB
4. Biliary duct injury
5. Prolonged extrahepatic biliary obstruction

26

Fistula

Opening from one thing to another

27

What is an example of a fistula?

A tear

28

Leukocytosis

A white blood cell count above the normal range

29

What is leukocytosis a sign of?

Inflammatory or infection response
- includes parasitic infections

30

What does a decrease in serum albumin suggest?

A decrease in protein synthesis