Lesson 1A (Part 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 1A (Part 3) Deck (29)
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1

Bilirubin

A product from the breakdown of hemoglobin in old red blood cells

2

What can cause abnormal levels of bilirubin?

A disruption in the process

3

What causes the skin to look yellow?

A leakage of bilirubin into the tissues

4

What does bilirubin reflect the balance between? (2)

1. Production of bile
2. Excretion of bile

5

What are elevated levels of direct or conjugated bilirubin associated with? (4)

1. Obstruction
2. Hepatitis
3. Cirrhosis
4. Liver metastases

6

What are decreased levels of indirect of unconjugated bilirubin associated with?

Non-obstructive conditions
- eg. steatosis

7

What are indications for an US of the liver? (5)

1. Abnormal LFT’s
2. Hepatocellular disease
3. Biliary disease
4. Abdominal /postprandial pain
5. Palpable liver or spleen
pancreatitis

8

What are 2 types of congenital abnormalities for development in the liver?

1. Agenesis
2. Partial agenesis

9

Agenesis

No liver
- cant liver without it (but can live with a partial liver)

10

Partial agenesis

Part of the liver
- typically have a larger right lobe if you don't have a left lobe (one lobe compensatory)

11

What are 2 types of congenital abnormalities for position in the liver?

1. Situs inversus totalis
2. Congenital (fetal US) diaphragmatic hernia or omphalocele

12

Situs inversus totalis

Liver is found in the left hypochondrium
- opposite side

13

Congenital (fetal US) diaphragmatic hernia or omphalocele

Liver may herniate into the thorax or outside the abdominal cavity
- break through the diaphragm

14

What is a common appearance for granulomas?

Calcifications in parenchyma

15

What is granulomas related to? (2)

1. Scarring
2. Infection

16

What is the common appearance for hamaromas? (4)

1. Small
2. Focal
3. Solid
4. Hypoechoic

17

What is the common appearance for cysts? (3)

1. Fluid filled
2. Epithelial lining
3. Posterior acoustic enhancement

18

What are cysts related to?

Abnormal LFTs
- tumours
- infection
- biliary obstruction

19

What is the common appearance for abscess forming from cysts? (4)

1. Internal echoes
2. Septations
3. Thick walls
4. Solid

20

What is the common appearance for cavernous hemangioma? (4)

1. Homogenous
2. Hyperechoic
3. Tiny blood vessels but avascular on doppler
4. Well circumscribed

21

What is the most common benign tumour?

Cavernous hemangioma

22

What is the common appearance for focal nodular hyperplasia? (5)

1. Central scar
- vascular malformation
2. Isoechoic
3. Well circumscribed
4. Contour abnormality to liver
5. Hypervascular/stellate pattern
- spoke wheel appearance

23

What is the second most common benign tumour?

Focal nodular hyperplasia
- FNH

24

What is FNH related to? (3)

1. Hormones
2. Oral contraceptives
3. Child bearing years

25

What is the common appearance for hepatic adenomas? (5)

1. Hyper vascular
- periphery
2. Heterogenous
- presence of fat, glycogen hemorrhagic products
3. Multiple feeding arteries
4. Shows central hepatic artery
5. Capsule in 1/3 of cases**

26

What is a symptom of hepatic adenomas (2)

1. Pain
- RUQ
2. Palpable mass if large enough

27

What are hepatic adenomas related to?

Hormones

28

What is the common appearance for fatty tumours? (2)

1. Broken diaphragm
2. Echogenic mass
- well defined

29

What are fatty tumours related to?

Renal angiomyolipomas