Flashcards in Lesson 1A (Part 3) Deck (29)
A product from the breakdown of hemoglobin in old red blood cells
What can cause abnormal levels of bilirubin?
A disruption in the process
What causes the skin to look yellow?
A leakage of bilirubin into the tissues
What does bilirubin reflect the balance between? (2)
1. Production of bile
2. Excretion of bile
What are elevated levels of direct or conjugated bilirubin associated with? (4)
4. Liver metastases
What are decreased levels of indirect of unconjugated bilirubin associated with?
- eg. steatosis
What are indications for an US of the liver? (5)
1. Abnormal LFT’s
2. Hepatocellular disease
3. Biliary disease
4. Abdominal /postprandial pain
5. Palpable liver or spleen
What are 2 types of congenital abnormalities for development in the liver?
2. Partial agenesis
- cant liver without it (but can live with a partial liver)
Part of the liver
- typically have a larger right lobe if you don't have a left lobe (one lobe compensatory)
What are 2 types of congenital abnormalities for position in the liver?
1. Situs inversus totalis
2. Congenital (fetal US) diaphragmatic hernia or omphalocele
Situs inversus totalis
Liver is found in the left hypochondrium
- opposite side
Congenital (fetal US) diaphragmatic hernia or omphalocele
Liver may herniate into the thorax or outside the abdominal cavity
- break through the diaphragm
What is a common appearance for granulomas?
Calcifications in parenchyma
What is granulomas related to? (2)
What is the common appearance for hamaromas? (4)
What is the common appearance for cysts? (3)
1. Fluid filled
2. Epithelial lining
3. Posterior acoustic enhancement
What are cysts related to?
- biliary obstruction
What is the common appearance for abscess forming from cysts? (4)
1. Internal echoes
3. Thick walls
What is the common appearance for cavernous hemangioma? (4)
3. Tiny blood vessels but avascular on doppler
4. Well circumscribed
What is the most common benign tumour?
What is the common appearance for focal nodular hyperplasia? (5)
1. Central scar
- vascular malformation
3. Well circumscribed
4. Contour abnormality to liver
5. Hypervascular/stellate pattern
- spoke wheel appearance
What is the second most common benign tumour?
Focal nodular hyperplasia
What is FNH related to? (3)
2. Oral contraceptives
3. Child bearing years
What is the common appearance for hepatic adenomas? (5)
1. Hyper vascular
- presence of fat, glycogen hemorrhagic products
3. Multiple feeding arteries
4. Shows central hepatic artery
5. Capsule in 1/3 of cases**
What is a symptom of hepatic adenomas (2)
2. Palpable mass if large enough
What are hepatic adenomas related to?
What is the common appearance for fatty tumours? (2)
1. Broken diaphragm
2. Echogenic mass
- well defined