Lesson 4E (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 4E (Part 1) Deck (32)
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1

What are examples of renal vascular abnormalities? (6)

1. Renal artery occlusion and infarction
2. Arteriovenous fistula and malformation
3. Renal artery stenosis
4. Renal artery aneurysm
5. Renal vein thrombosis
6. Ovarian vein thrombosis

2

RVT

Renal vein thrombosis

3

What is renal vein thrombosis due to? (5)

1. Underlying abnormality of the kidney
2. Dehydration
3. Hypercoagulable state
4. Tumors of the kidney
5. Left adrenal gland may spread into the veins

4

What are some extrinsic compression related to tumors that slow the venous flow? (3)

1. Retroperitoneal fibrosis
2. Pancreatitis
3. Trauma

5

What is the etiology of RVT?

Membraneous glomerulonephritis
- 50% of the time

6

What do patients with RVT present? (2)

1. Flank pain
2. Hematuria

7

How does acute RVT look like on US?

Large edematous hypoechoic kidney
- swollen

8

Acute RVT

Loss of normal corticomedullary differentiation acute due to a clot in the renal vein

9

What does chronic RVT look like on US?

Appears as small end stage echogenic kidney
- atrophic

10

What may develop with chronic RVT?

Occlusion
- blockage

11

What are 8 types of medical genitourinary disease?

1. Acute tubular Necrosis
2. Acute cortical Necrosis
3. Glomerulonephritis
4. Acute interstitial nephritis
5. Diabetes Mellitus
6. Amyloidosis
7. Endometriosis
8. Interstitial cystitis

12

What is the most common cause of acute reversible renal failure?

Acute tubular necrosis

13

What does acute tubular necrosis look like on US?

Deposition of cellular debris within renal collecting tubules

14

Is US good for identifying acute tubular necrosis?

No

15

What is a rate cause of acute renal failure?

Acute cortical necrosis

16

What does acute cortical necrosis look like on US? (2)

1. Cortex is hypoechoic in acute phase
2. Atrophy
- after 2 months

17

What is acute glomerulonephrotos?

Necrosis and mesangial cell proliferation of the glomerulus

18

What are symptoms of acute glomerulonephrotos? (3)

1. Hypertension
2. Hematuria
3. Azotemia

19

How are the kidneys affect with acute glomerulonephrotos? (2)

1. Both kidneys are affected
2. May be normal or enlarge
- with treatment they go back to normal

20

What happens with chronic glomerulonephrotos?

Profound, global symmetrical parenchymal loss occurs

21

How does chronic glomerulonephrotos look like on US? (2)

1. Small smooth echogenic kidneys
2. Prominent central echo complex

22

Parenchymal loss

Scarring

23

Acute interstitial nephrosis

Acute hypersensitivity reaction of the kidney to drugs

24

What does renal failure resolve with?

Cessation of drug

25

What does acute interstitial nephritis look like on US?

Enlarged echogenic kidneys

26

What is the most common cause of chronic renal failure?

Diabetes Mellitus

27

What is present in amyloidosis?

Renal failure

28

Who is amyloidosis more common in?

Males
- 60

29

What does amyloidosis look like in the acute phase?

Enlarged kidneys

30

What does amyloidosis look like with progression? (6)

1. Kidneys shrink
2. Cortical atrophy
3. Increased echogenicity
4. Focal renal masses
5. Calcification
6. Central or perirenal masses