Lesson 4A (Part 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 4A (Part 3) Deck (30)
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1

What are 3 anomalies related to ascent of kidney?

1. Ectopia
2. Crossed renal ectopia
3. Horseshoe kidney

2

Ectopia pelvic kidney

Failure of the kidney to ascend during embryology

3

Where is the ectopia pelvic kidney located?

In iliac region with malrotation of collecting system

4

What percentage have a decreased function with ectopia pelvic kidney?

50%

5

What happens to the ureters with ectopia pelvic kidney?

They are short

6

What do short ureters lead to?

Poor drainage

7

What does collecting system dilation lead to? (2)

1. Infection
2. Stone formation

8

Where are the kidneys in a crossed renal ectopia?

Both kidneys are found on the same side
- may be fused to the other kidney

9

Crossed renal ectopia

Upper pole of the ectopic kidney will be fused to lower pole of the other kidney

10

Where are the ureterovesicular junctions in a crossed renal ectopia?

In the normal spot
- important to know for patients with renal colic

11

Horseshoe kidney

Fusion occurs prior to ascent usually at the lower poles

12

What should be measured with a horseshoe kidney?

The isthmus

13

Where does a horseshoe kidney lay?

Anterior to Aorta and other great vessels

14

What can a horseshoe kidney result in? (4)

1. Obstruction
2. Infection
3. Stone formation
4. Hydronephrosis

15

Why do we measure the isthmus with a horseshoe kidney?

There is an increase risk of developing a neoplasm

16

How many subtypes of horseshoe kidneys are there?

6
- a-f

17

What are 6 anomalies related to ureteral bud?

1. Renal agenesis
2. Congenital Megacalicies
3. Congenital Megaureter
4. Supernumerary kidney
5. Duplex collecting system and Ureteroceles
6. Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

18

Unilateral renal agenesis

Is an incidental finding with an apparent compensatory hypertrophy of the single kidney

19

Bilateral renal agenesis

Is a rare anomaly and incompatible with life

20

What is renal agenesis associated with? (2)

1. Genital tract anomalies
- Mullerian duct
2. High blood pressure

21

What is usually present with renal agenesis?

Adrenal glands

22

What do you have to be careful with renal agensis?

Is the colon falls into the empty renal bed so dont mistake the loop of gut for kidney

23

What is another term for megacalicies?

Puigverts disease

24

Megacalicies

Unilateral nonobstructive enlargement of the calyces

25

Do megacalicies have normal parenchyma and renal function?

Yes

26

How is puigverts seen on US?

Numerous clubbed calyces
- dilated

27

What can occur with megacalyces? (2)

1. Infection
2. Stones occur

28

Megaureter

Functional ureteric obstruction, however, the distal ureter segment is aperistaltic

29

How does megaureter appear?

As fusiform dilation of distal third

30

Who are more affected by the megaureter?

Men