Lesson 4C (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 4C (Part 1) Deck (32)
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1

What are 8 examples of genitourinary tumours?

1. Renal cell Carcinoma
2. Transitional Cell Carcinoma
3. Ureteral Tumors
4. Bladder Tumors
5. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
6. Adenocarcinoma
7. Oncocytoma
8. Angiomyolipoma

2

Renal cell carcinoma

Cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubules

3

What is the most common type of renal cell ccarcinoma?

Clear cell

4

What are risk factors for renal cell carcinoma? (4)

1. Acquired cystic kidney disease
2. Patients receiving long-term hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis
3. Before the advent of imaging- patients presented with advanced metastatic disease
4. May spread to virtually every organ in the body

5

RCC

Renal cell carcinoma

6

Wha is the percent of all primary malignant renal parenchymal tumours?

86%

7

Who does RCC affect more?

Men
- 50-70 years of age

8

What is the cause of RCC?

Unknown

9

Patients with what have an increased incidence for RCC?

Tuberous sclerosis

10

What is the classic triad of symptoms for RCC? (3)

1. Flank pain
2. Gross hematuria
- can visually see this
3. Palpable renal mass

11

What are symptoms of RCC with the advanced disease? (3)

1. Anorexia
2. Weight loss
3. Some are found incidentally

12

What 2 modalities are used to characterize RCC?

1. CT
2. US

13

What is done is the tumours is large and centrally located?

Radical nephrectomy

14

What are 3 different types of RCC?

1. Clear cell
2. Papillary RCC
3. Cystic

15

What does cystic RCC look like on US? (3)

1. Multilocular cystic
- with internal septations
2. Unilocular cystic
- debris filled, thick walls
3. Necrotic appearance

16

What does RCC look like on US? (3)

1. Most are solid
2. Hypoechoic, isoechoic or hyperechoic
- majority are isoechoic
3. May resemble an angiomyolipoma

17

What should be assessed if there is suspected solid renal mass? (3)

1. Renal veins
2. IVC
3. Peritoneum

18

What are differential diagnosis for RCC? (5)

1. Transitional cell carcinoma
- occurs in central kidney
2. Medullary cancer
- sickle cell trait
3. Renal sarcoma
4. Metastases and lymphoma
5. Benign tumors
- renal adenoma
- oncocytoma

19

What is not possible with imaging tests?

To distinguish RCC from benign renal tumours

20

What is the exception with distinguishing with imaging tests?

Angiomyolipoma
- CT and MRI detect the fat composition

21

What are the 4 stages of RCC?

1. Tumour is confined within the renal capsule
2. Tumour invasion of perinephric fat
3. Tumour involvement of regional lymph nodes
4. Invasion of adjacent organs or distal metastasis

22

What is the inferior modality for RCC staging?

US
- compared to CT and MRI

23

What is helpful in diagnosing thrombosis?

Colour doppler

24

What affects the image clarity? (2)

1. Obesity
2. Bowel gas

25

Juxtaglomerular tumour

Is an extremely rare kidney tumour in the juxtaglomerular cells that typically secrete renin

26

What does juxtaglomerular tumour cause?

Hypertension

27

Who does juxtaglomerular tumour affect most commonly?

Young adults

28

Is juxtaglomerular tumour considered benign or malignant?

Benign

29

Renal sinus lipomatosis

Increased fat in the renal sinus that occurs secondary to the renal parenchyma atrophy or destruction of the parenchyma
- pseudotumour

30

Is renal sinus lipomatosis symptomatic or asymptomatic?

Asymptomatic