Flashcards in Lesson 4C (Part 1) Deck (32)
What are 8 examples of genitourinary tumours?
1. Renal cell Carcinoma
2. Transitional Cell Carcinoma
3. Ureteral Tumors
4. Bladder Tumors
5. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Renal cell carcinoma
Cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubules
What is the most common type of renal cell ccarcinoma?
What are risk factors for renal cell carcinoma? (4)
1. Acquired cystic kidney disease
2. Patients receiving long-term hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis
3. Before the advent of imaging- patients presented with advanced metastatic disease
4. May spread to virtually every organ in the body
Renal cell carcinoma
Wha is the percent of all primary malignant renal parenchymal tumours?
Who does RCC affect more?
- 50-70 years of age
What is the cause of RCC?
Patients with what have an increased incidence for RCC?
What is the classic triad of symptoms for RCC? (3)
1. Flank pain
2. Gross hematuria
- can visually see this
3. Palpable renal mass
What are symptoms of RCC with the advanced disease? (3)
2. Weight loss
3. Some are found incidentally
What 2 modalities are used to characterize RCC?
What is done is the tumours is large and centrally located?
What are 3 different types of RCC?
1. Clear cell
2. Papillary RCC
What does cystic RCC look like on US? (3)
1. Multilocular cystic
- with internal septations
2. Unilocular cystic
- debris filled, thick walls
3. Necrotic appearance
What does RCC look like on US? (3)
1. Most are solid
2. Hypoechoic, isoechoic or hyperechoic
- majority are isoechoic
3. May resemble an angiomyolipoma
What should be assessed if there is suspected solid renal mass? (3)
1. Renal veins
What are differential diagnosis for RCC? (5)
1. Transitional cell carcinoma
- occurs in central kidney
2. Medullary cancer
- sickle cell trait
3. Renal sarcoma
4. Metastases and lymphoma
5. Benign tumors
- renal adenoma
What is not possible with imaging tests?
To distinguish RCC from benign renal tumours
What is the exception with distinguishing with imaging tests?
- CT and MRI detect the fat composition
What are the 4 stages of RCC?
1. Tumour is confined within the renal capsule
2. Tumour invasion of perinephric fat
3. Tumour involvement of regional lymph nodes
4. Invasion of adjacent organs or distal metastasis
What is the inferior modality for RCC staging?
- compared to CT and MRI
What is helpful in diagnosing thrombosis?
What affects the image clarity? (2)
2. Bowel gas
Is an extremely rare kidney tumour in the juxtaglomerular cells that typically secrete renin
What does juxtaglomerular tumour cause?
Who does juxtaglomerular tumour affect most commonly?
Is juxtaglomerular tumour considered benign or malignant?
Renal sinus lipomatosis
Increased fat in the renal sinus that occurs secondary to the renal parenchyma atrophy or destruction of the parenchyma
Is renal sinus lipomatosis symptomatic or asymptomatic?
What is renal sinus lipomatosis associated with? (3)
2. Steroid therapy
- during the aging process