Lesson 1D (Part 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 1D (Part 2) Deck (21)
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1

Amebiasis

Is a hepatic infection that is caused by parasites that penetrates through the colon, via mesenteric venules, then to the portal vein and off to the liver

2

How is amebiasis passed on?

Through the fecal-oral route

3

What is the most common presenting symptom with amebiasis?

Pain

4

What are the sonographic features of amebiasis? (5)

1. Round or oval shaped lesion
2. Absence of prominent wall
3. Hypoechogenicity
4. Distal enhancement
5. Continuity with the diaphragm

5

What is the most common cause for hydatid disease?

The parasite Echinococcus granulosis
- tape work that is 3-6mm long

6

Where is hydatid disease most common?

Prevalent in sheep and cattle raising countries

7

How does the hydatid disease spread?

Embryos are freed in the duodenum and reach the liver through the portal veins
- where most get trapped

8

What organs can hydatid disease involve? (4)

1. Lungs
2. Kidneys
3. Spleen
4. CNS

9

Which side of the liver is most frequently involved with hydatid disease?

The right lobe

10

What does the hydatid disease form?

Slow growing cysts

11

What are the sonographic features of the hydatid disease? (4)

1. Simple cysts
2. Cysts with detached endocyst secondary to rupture
3. Cysts with daughter cysts
4. Densely calcified masses
5. Waterlily sign
- looks kinda like a flower

12

What is the conventional treatment for hydatid disease?

Surgery
- US is used to monitor therapy in patients

13

What is the most common parasitic infection in humans?

Schistosomiasis

14

How do the parasites reach the liver?

Through the portal vein
- eventually the branches get blocked

15

What does schistosomiasis lead to? (4)

1. Portal hypertension
2. Splenomegaly
3. Varices
4. Ascites ensues

16

What are the sonographic features of schistosomiasis? (2)

1. Widened echogenic portal tracts **
2. Can see dilated biliary ducts **
3. Starts out enlarged and then gets smaller

17

What region is most affected by schistosomiasis?

The porta hepatis

18

What is the most common organisms causing opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS?

Pneumocystis carinii

19

What is the most common cause of life threatening infection?

Pneumonia

20

What is a treatment suggestion for those who have Pneumocystis carinii?

Bone marrow and organ transplants

21

What are the sonographic appearances of Pneumocystis carinii? (2)

1. Tiny, diffuse non-shadowing echogenic foci
2. Extensive replacement of normal hepatic parenchyma by echogenic clumps of dense calcification